In this paper we present in the first section the historical antecedents of the Turkish and Dutch educational system regarding religion(s) in education. In the second section we will outline the different approaches in religious education in both countries. In the third section the focus is on the relationship between state and church. In the fourth section the issue is how in both countries curricula and textbooks for religious education are constructed, checked and approved. Finally, we will summarize the most remarkable points of comparison between the Dutch and the Turkish case regarding religion(s) in education. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.