Research Review: Genetic vulnerability or differential susceptibility in child development: The case of attachment

Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg*, Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Gene-environment interactions interpreted in terms of differential susceptibility may play a large part in the explanation of individual differences in human development. Reviewing studies on the behavioral and molecular genetics of attachment, we present evidence for interactions between genetic and environmental factors explaining individual differences in attachment security and disorganization. In particular, the DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism seems associated with an increased risk for disorganized attachment, but only when combined with environmental risk. Gene-environment (G × E) interactions may be interpreted as genetic vulnerability or differential susceptibility. We found support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis predicting not only more negative outcomes for susceptible children in unfavorable environments, but also positive outcomes for susceptible children in favorable environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1160-1173
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Volume48
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Attachment
  • Behavior problems
  • Differential susceptibility
  • Disorganized attachment
  • Dopamine
  • Gene-environment interaction
  • Genetics

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