Results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults

M. Eykelenboom, Elizabeth Velema, Berend P.D. Eberson, Gillian C. Scholten, Valerié K. Lushpa, Ingrid H.M. Steenhuis

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Portion and package sizes of foods generally influence energy intake in children and adults. However, little is known about this effect in older adults. This study aimed to determine the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults. Furthermore, it is investigated whether older women and men, different age groups (<65, 65-80, and 80+), and non-overweight (BMI<25), overweight (BMI≥25) and obese (BMI>30) older adults had different responses to variation in package size.

METHODS: A randomized controlled trial among 205 older adults was conducted wherein participants were randomized to either the small (350 g) (n = 103) or the large (1000 g) (n = 102) package size condition. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between package size condition and usage volume of peanut butter on a slice of bread. Interactions of sex, age groups and BMI categories with package size were tested to investigate differences in responses to variation in package size.

RESULTS: Older adults spread on average 12.4 g (SD = 4.3) of peanut butter on a slice of bread when exposed to a small jar of peanut butter and 12.6 g (SD = 4.4) when exposed to a large jar of peanut butter (B = 0.15; 95%CI = -1.04 to 1.35). Interactions between sex, age groups or BMI categories with package size condition were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased package size has no effect on usage volume of peanut butter among older adults. Older women and men, different age groups within older adults, and normal-weight, overweight and obese older adults do not respond differently to variation in package size of spreads.

LanguageEnglish
Pages184-189
Number of pages6
JournalAppetite
Volume130
Early online date8 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018

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Butter
Randomized Controlled Trials
Age Groups
Bread
Portion Size
Energy Intake
Arachis
Linear Models
Regression Analysis
Weights and Measures
Food

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Older adults
  • Overweight
  • Package
  • Portion size effect

Cite this

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title = "Results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Portion and package sizes of foods generally influence energy intake in children and adults. However, little is known about this effect in older adults. This study aimed to determine the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults. Furthermore, it is investigated whether older women and men, different age groups (<65, 65-80, and 80+), and non-overweight (BMI<25), overweight (BMI≥25) and obese (BMI>30) older adults had different responses to variation in package size.METHODS: A randomized controlled trial among 205 older adults was conducted wherein participants were randomized to either the small (350 g) (n = 103) or the large (1000 g) (n = 102) package size condition. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between package size condition and usage volume of peanut butter on a slice of bread. Interactions of sex, age groups and BMI categories with package size were tested to investigate differences in responses to variation in package size.RESULTS: Older adults spread on average 12.4 g (SD = 4.3) of peanut butter on a slice of bread when exposed to a small jar of peanut butter and 12.6 g (SD = 4.4) when exposed to a large jar of peanut butter (B = 0.15; 95{\%}CI = -1.04 to 1.35). Interactions between sex, age groups or BMI categories with package size condition were not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: Increased package size has no effect on usage volume of peanut butter among older adults. Older women and men, different age groups within older adults, and normal-weight, overweight and obese older adults do not respond differently to variation in package size of spreads.",
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note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
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Results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults. / Eykelenboom, M.; Velema, Elizabeth; Eberson, Berend P.D.; Scholten, Gillian C.; Lushpa, Valerié K.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H.M.

In: Appetite, Vol. 130, 01.11.2018, p. 184-189.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Eykelenboom, M.

AU - Velema, Elizabeth

AU - Eberson, Berend P.D.

AU - Scholten, Gillian C.

AU - Lushpa, Valerié K.

AU - Steenhuis, Ingrid H.M.

N1 - Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Portion and package sizes of foods generally influence energy intake in children and adults. However, little is known about this effect in older adults. This study aimed to determine the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults. Furthermore, it is investigated whether older women and men, different age groups (<65, 65-80, and 80+), and non-overweight (BMI<25), overweight (BMI≥25) and obese (BMI>30) older adults had different responses to variation in package size.METHODS: A randomized controlled trial among 205 older adults was conducted wherein participants were randomized to either the small (350 g) (n = 103) or the large (1000 g) (n = 102) package size condition. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between package size condition and usage volume of peanut butter on a slice of bread. Interactions of sex, age groups and BMI categories with package size were tested to investigate differences in responses to variation in package size.RESULTS: Older adults spread on average 12.4 g (SD = 4.3) of peanut butter on a slice of bread when exposed to a small jar of peanut butter and 12.6 g (SD = 4.4) when exposed to a large jar of peanut butter (B = 0.15; 95%CI = -1.04 to 1.35). Interactions between sex, age groups or BMI categories with package size condition were not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: Increased package size has no effect on usage volume of peanut butter among older adults. Older women and men, different age groups within older adults, and normal-weight, overweight and obese older adults do not respond differently to variation in package size of spreads.

AB - BACKGROUND: Portion and package sizes of foods generally influence energy intake in children and adults. However, little is known about this effect in older adults. This study aimed to determine the effect of increasing package size on usage volume of peanut butter in older adults. Furthermore, it is investigated whether older women and men, different age groups (<65, 65-80, and 80+), and non-overweight (BMI<25), overweight (BMI≥25) and obese (BMI>30) older adults had different responses to variation in package size.METHODS: A randomized controlled trial among 205 older adults was conducted wherein participants were randomized to either the small (350 g) (n = 103) or the large (1000 g) (n = 102) package size condition. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between package size condition and usage volume of peanut butter on a slice of bread. Interactions of sex, age groups and BMI categories with package size were tested to investigate differences in responses to variation in package size.RESULTS: Older adults spread on average 12.4 g (SD = 4.3) of peanut butter on a slice of bread when exposed to a small jar of peanut butter and 12.6 g (SD = 4.4) when exposed to a large jar of peanut butter (B = 0.15; 95%CI = -1.04 to 1.35). Interactions between sex, age groups or BMI categories with package size condition were not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: Increased package size has no effect on usage volume of peanut butter among older adults. Older women and men, different age groups within older adults, and normal-weight, overweight and obese older adults do not respond differently to variation in package size of spreads.

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