To reveal the peptide contents of the visually nonidentifiable neurons from a neuronal circuit of interest, we combined retrograde labeling of neurons with mass spectrometric single cell analysis. We used the neuronal circuit involved in the copulation behavior of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, as a model. Central neurons that control this behavior are known to send their axons to the penis nerve and innervate the penis complex. By retrograde filling from the penis nerve with nickel-lysine, these neurons were selectively labeled darkish blue. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses of single stained neurons in the parietal ganglion from different animals reveal consistently the presence of several molecular ion species in the range of 800-1200 Da. From a single neuron, six molecular ion species were further characterized with MALDI time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, which demonstrates that the peptides are derived from a previously reported -FLRFamide precursor.