Review of the analysis of insecticide residues and their levels in different matrices in Ghana

Saada Mohammed*, Marja Lamoree, Osmund Duodu Ansa-Asare, Jacob de Boer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This review reports on how Ghanaian scientists analyse insecticide residues in various matrices in their laboratories as well as the levels of insecticides found in Ghana. It covers different sample preparation methods such as solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction. The main technique used for this analysis was gas chromatography (GC) with various detectors such as electron capture, flame photometric, nitrogen phosphorus, and mass spectrometric detection. Liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric detection was sometimes used to determine the levels of very polar insecticide residues. From the articles reviewed 74% of the insecticides detected were organochlorines with DDTs, lindanes, and endosulfans as most abundant ones. Levels of the insecticides of interest analysed, varied from below the detection limits to clearly above the safety limits. The lowest detected concentration of insecticide residues reported in fruits and vegetables was δ-lindane in pawpaw (0.06 mg/kg) while the highest was fenvalerate (25.6 mg/kg). Insecticide residues reported in sediment were predominantly organochlorines with concentrations ranging from 9.68 ng/kg to 10.98 µg/kg. Endosulfan and its metabolites were the main insecticides found in water bodies with concentrations ranging from 0.036 µg/L to 62.3 µg/L. DDT and its metabolites were the dominant insecticides found in human fluids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-372
Number of pages12
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Early online date4 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2019


  • Concentrations
  • Environment
  • Ghana
  • Insecticides
  • Methods
  • Vegetables


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