Medical research suggests that particulate matter (PM) increases stress hormones, therefore increasing the feeling of stress, which has been hypothesised to induce individuals to take less risk. To examine this, we study whether PM 10 increases the probability of drawing in chess games using information from the Dutch club competition. We provide evidence of a reasonably strong effect: A 10 μg increase in PM 10 (33.6% of mean concentration) leads to a 5.6% increase in draws. We examine a range of explanations for these findings. Our preferred interpretation is that air pollution causes individuals to take less risk.
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- Air pollution
- Particulate matter