Role of the oral microbiome, metabolic pathways, and novel diagnostic tools in intra-oral halitosis: a comprehensive update

L.H. Foo, P. Balan, L.M. Pang, M.L. Laine, C.J. Seneviratne

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Halitosis or oral malodor is one of the most common reasons for the patients' visit to the dental clinic, ranking behind only dental caries and periodontitis. In the present times, where social and professional communications are becoming unavoidable, halitosis has become a concern of growing importance. Oral malodor mostly develops due to the putrefaction of substrates by the indigenous bacterial populations. Although culture-based studies have provided adequate information on halitosis, the high throughput omics technologies have amplified the resolution at which oral microbial community can be examined and has led to the detection of a broader range of taxa associated with intra-oral halitosis (IOH). These microorganisms are regulated by the interactions of their ecological processes. Thus to develop effective treatment strategies, it is important to understand the microbial basis of halitosis. In the current review, we provide an update on IOH in context to the role of the oral microbiome, metabolic pathways involved, and novel diagnostic tools, including breathomics. Understanding oral microbiota associated with halitosis from a broader ecological perspective can provide novel insights into one's oral and systemic health. Such information can pave the way for the emergence of diagnostic tools that can revolutionize the early detection of halitosis and various associated medical conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-375
JournalCritical Reviews in Microbiology
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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