Objective - To explore to what extent homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine, total folate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 are associated with endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and whether these associations are stronger in individuals with diabetes or other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods and Results - In this population-based study of 608 elderly people, FMD and endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) were ultrasonically estimated from the brachial artery (absolute change in diameter [μm]). High SAM and low 5-MTHF were significantly associated with high and low FMD, respectively (linear regression coefficient, [95% confidence interval]): 48.57 μm (21.16; 75.98) and -32.15 μm (-59.09; -5.20), but high homocysteine was not (-15.11 μm (-42.99; 12.78). High SAM and low 5-MTHF were also significantly associated with high and low NMD, respectively. NMD explained the association of 5-MTHF with FMD but not of SAM. No interactions were observed for diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions - In this elderly population, both SAM and 5-MTHF are associated with endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. The effect of homocysteine on endothelial function is relatively small compared with SAM and 5-MTHF. The relative impact of SAM, 5-MTHF, and homocysteine, and the mechanisms through which these moieties may affect endothelial and smooth muscle cell function need clarification. © 2005 American Heart Association, Inc.