Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

S. Kraaij, K.H. Karagozoglu, T. Forouzanfar, E.C.I. Veerman, H.S. Brand

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E23
JournalBritish Dental Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014


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