Self-organized collective coordinated behaviour is an impressive phenomenon, observed in a variety of natural and artificial systems, in which coherent global structures or dynamics emerge from local interactions between individual parts. If the degree of collective integration of a system does not depend on size, its level of robustness and adaptivity is typically increased and we refer to it as scale-invariant. In this review, we first identify three main types of self-organized scale-invariant systems: scale-invariant spatial structures, scale-invariant topologies and scale-invariant dynamics. We then provide examples of scale invariance from different domains in science, describe their origins and main features and discuss potential challenges and approaches for designing and engineering artificial systems with scale-invariant properties.
- Collective behaviour
- Distributed systems and control
- Scale-free networks
- Scale-invariant dynamics