Background: To assess the change of the Schneider membrane thickness measured by CBCT before and after root canal treatment, retreatment and pulp capping procedures. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on CBCT scans of a patient population of Guy's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London. Three groups of patients were studied: Group 1 consisted of patients referred for primary endodontic treatment; Group 2 for endodontic retreatment; Group 3 for indirect pulp capping procedures (serving as a control group). Follow up scans were carried out 1 year after treatment. Measurements were carried out on CBCT scans and data were analysed statistically by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Linear regression was used to assess predictive parameters for membrane thickness. Results: A statistically significant reduction of the Schneider membrane thickness was observed one year after endodontic treatment and retreatment (P < 0.05) but no significant reduction was observed after pulp capping procedures. Linear regression showed that age and gender were significant predictors influencing the Schneider membrane thickness. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this retrospective study, following root canal treatment and re-treatment a Schneiderian membrane thickness reduction occurred at 1-year follow-up. The removal of odontogenic infection following endodontic treatment may help reducing the thickness of the Schneider membrane.