Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

W.H. Winthorst, W.J. Post, Y. Meesters, B.W.J.H. Penninx, W.A. Nolen

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder.Methods: Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model.Results: In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms.Conclusions: Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. © 2011 Winthorst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number198
    JournalBMC Psychiatry
    Volume11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Fingerprint

    Depressive Disorder
    Anxiety Disorders
    Netherlands
    Primary Health Care
    Anxiety
    Depression
    Major Depressive Disorder
    Population
    Fear
    Linear Models
    Equipment and Supplies
    Psychiatry
    Interviews
    Control Groups

    Cite this

    @article{4530b0072b5c4ca1a7fdbc8fe5f9f3c4,
    title = "Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety",
    abstract = "Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder.Methods: Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model.Results: In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms.Conclusions: Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. {\circledC} 2011 Winthorst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.",
    author = "W.H. Winthorst and W.J. Post and Y. Meesters and B.W.J.H. Penninx and W.A. Nolen",
    year = "2011",
    doi = "10.1186/1471-244X-11-198",
    language = "English",
    volume = "11",
    journal = "BMC Psychiatry",
    issn = "1471-244X",
    publisher = "BioMed Central",

    }

    Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. / Winthorst, W.H.; Post, W.J.; Meesters, Y.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nolen, W.A.

    In: BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 11, 198, 2011.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    AU - Winthorst, W.H.

    AU - Post, W.J.

    AU - Meesters, Y.

    AU - Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    AU - Nolen, W.A.

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder.Methods: Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model.Results: In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms.Conclusions: Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. © 2011 Winthorst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    AB - Background: Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder.Methods: Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model.Results: In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms.Conclusions: Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. © 2011 Winthorst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    U2 - 10.1186/1471-244X-11-198

    DO - 10.1186/1471-244X-11-198

    M3 - Article

    VL - 11

    JO - BMC Psychiatry

    JF - BMC Psychiatry

    SN - 1471-244X

    M1 - 198

    ER -