Mélanges originated from sedimentary processes (sedimentary mélanges) and olistostromes are frequently present in mountain chains worldwide. They are excellent fossil examples of mass- Transport complexes (MTC), often cropping out in well-preserved and laterally continuous exposures. In this article we will show the results of the integrated study of fossil MTCs, including sedimentary mélanges/ olistostromes, with a focus on the Apennines of Italy. Fossil MTCs, especially the basin-wide ones, are composite and multi-event units involving the entire spectra of mass- Transport processes. The down-slope motion of these bodies is enabled by the relative movement of discrete masses, with progressive stratal disruption of rocks/sediment involved and flow transformation. Three kinds of MTC are here distinguished, in which the movements are enabled by (1) shear-dominated viscous flows within a muddy matrix, (2) mud-silt-sandy matrix sustained by fluid overpressure, (3) concentrated shear zones/surfaces with advection of grains and fluid (overpressured basal carpets). These MTC types may represent end-members of a continuum of products and correspond to different kinematics of transport and emplacement and to different relationship with the substratum. These observations should result in a better knowledge of mass- Transport processes and bodies, in relation with the basin floor geometries. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.
|Name||Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences - 5th International Symposium|
- Mass- Transport complexes
- Submarine landslides