We quantify the impact of unpolarized lepton-proton and lepton-nucleus inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) cross section measurements from the future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) on the proton and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). To this purpose, we include neutral- and charged-current DIS pseudodata in a self-consistent set of proton and nuclear global PDF determinations based on the NNPDF methodology. We demonstrate that the EIC measurements will reduce the uncertainty of the light quark PDFs of the proton at large values of the momentum fraction x and, more significantly, of the quark and gluon PDFs of heavy nuclei, especially at small and large x. We illustrate the implications of the improved precision of nuclear PDFs for the interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos with matter.
Bibliographical note11 pages, 5 figures, In the context of the Electron-Ion collider yellow report.
We thank the conveners of the Inclusive Reaction Working Group for allowing us to utilize the EIC pseudodata generated for the upcoming EIC Yellow report and our colleagues in the EIC User Group for many useful discussions. We thank Alfonso Garcia for having provided us with the numerical results displayed in Figs. and . The work of R. A. K., J. E., and J. R. is partially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). E. R. N. is supported by the UK STFC Grant No. ST/T000600/1 and was also supported by the European Commission through the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action ParDHonSFFs.TMDs (Grant No. 752748).
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