Aim: To understand whether the self-efficacy of undergraduates is associated with the extent of the endodontic education they received. Methodology: Data were obtained from three undergraduate endodontic programmes in two universities: Aarhus University (AU), Denmark and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), the Netherlands. Just before their graduations in 2016 or 2017, students completed a questionnaire that contained the Endodontic General Self-Efficacy Scale and questions on how they valued the education they received in Endodontics. The information on the number and type of root canal treatments participants had performed on patients was collected from dental clinic management systems. Data were ana-lysed using non-parametric tests and multiple regression analyses. Results: The median number of treated root canals on patients per student was 5 in the standard programme at ACTA, 10 in AU, and 14.5 in the extended programme at ACTA. Students’ self-efficacy increased with the number of treated root canals; however, retreatments and root canal treatments in molars were negatively associated with self-efficacy. All students wanted more experience in performing root canal treatment on patients. Conclusions: The endodontic self-efficacy of students from the standard programmes of the two participating universities was comparable. Students’ self-efficacy was influenced mostly by their clinical experience when performing root canal treatment. It seems that the more root canal treatments students perform on patients, the greater their self-efficacy is at graduation. However, treating difficult cases (molars and retreatments) might reduce their self-efficacy.