Several problem nutrients are identified in the complementary diet of 6 to 11 month old breastfed children in Western Guatemala

Marieke Vossenaar*, Ilse van Beusekom, Jeniece Alvey, Colleen M. Doak, Noel W. Solomons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background and Objectives: The failure of infants in developing countries to meet nutrient intake recommendations is well documented. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy and identify problem nutrients of the diets of Guatemalan infants with continued breastfeeding. Methods and Study Design: A single previous-day dietary recall was collected from a convenience sample of 94 mothers of infants aged 6-11 mo attending a public health clinic in the urban area of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Energy and nutrient content of complementary feeding (CF) and breastmilk, modelled by subtracting estimated energy intakes from CF from energy requirements, were calculated and nutrient adequacy of the diet was assessed. Nutrient densities and critical nutrient densities of CF were computed to identify "problem nutrients" and main food sources of these nutrients. Results: Complementary diets were adequate for protein, but likely to be inadequate for pantothenic acid and vitamins C, A, D, E, and K, as well as calcium, iron and zinc. In the worst-case scenario, i.e. for small girls with limited energy allowances, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and magnesium were identified as "problem nutrients" as well. Formula milk, cow milk and Incaparina® were main food sources of "problem nutrients". Conclusions: The intake of micronutrients during the first six months of the recommend CF period in Guatemala has a number of notable inadequacies, but the gaps are narrower than traditionally reported for this age group in low-income settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1084-1094
Number of pages11
JournalAsia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number5
Early online date4 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018

Bibliographical note

P. 1-23 ?


The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Financial support was obtained from the Nestlé Foundation of Lausanne, Switzerland.

FundersFunder number
Nestlé Foundation of Lausanne


    • Breastmilk
    • Complementary feeding
    • Guatemala
    • Infant feeding
    • Micronutrient intake


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