Shop scheduling problems with pliable jobs

S. Knust, N. V. Shakhlevich*, S. Waldherr, C. Weiß

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this paper, we study a new type of flow shop and open shop models, which handle so-called “pliable” jobs: their total processing times are given, but individual processing times of operations which make up these jobs are flexible and need to be determined. Our analysis demonstrates that many versions of flow shop and open shop problems with pliable jobs appear to be computationally easier than their traditional counterparts, unless the jobs have job-dependent restrictions imposed on minimum and maximum operation lengths. In the latter case, most problems with pliability become NP-hard even in the case of two machines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)635-661
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Scheduling
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Flow shop
  • Identical parallel machines
  • Open shop
  • Preemption
  • Scheduling


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