Small-scale gold mining and the COVID-19 pandemic: Conflict and cooperation in the Brazilian Amazon

J. Calvimontes, L. Massaro, C.H.X. Araujo, R.R. Moraes, J. Mello, L.C. Ferreira, M. de Theije

Research output: Contribution to JournalComment / Letter to the editorAcademic

102 Downloads (Pure)


The COVID-19 pandemic exposes both conflict and cooperation in artisanal and small-scale gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon. Reporting on the experiences of artisanal and small-scale gold miners (garimpeiros, in Brazilian Portuguese), we show how, on the one hand, the pandemic challenges an already precarious working system that could lead garimpeiros, often invisible to public policies, to positions of further vulnerability; and, on the other hand, highlights the capacity of garimpeiros to self-organize and navigate the difficulties by finding alternative solutions to cope with the crisis. This leads us to argue that emerging strategies of cooperation, related to self-organization and communication channels have the potential to provide experiences useful for processes of conflict transformation in the post-crisis. We acknowledge that much depends on the severity of the crisis and its manifestations in the region; nevertheless, the potential for constructive outcomes from the crisis should not be disregarded.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1347-1350
Number of pages4
JournalThe Extractive Industries and Society
Issue number4
Early online date3 Sept 2020
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • COVID-19
  • Artisanal and small-scale mining
  • Gold
  • Brazil
  • Amazon


Dive into the research topics of 'Small-scale gold mining and the COVID-19 pandemic: Conflict and cooperation in the Brazilian Amazon'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this