Social Competence in Parents Increases Children's Educational Attainment: Replicable Genetically-Mediated Effects of Parenting Revealed by Non-Transmitted DNA

Timothy C. Bates, Brion S. Maher, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Sarah E. Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J. Wright, Narelle K. Hansell, Aysu Okbay, Kenneth S. Kendler, Nicholas G. Martin, Nathan A. Gillespie

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

We recently reported an association of offspring educational attainment with polygenic risk scores (PRS) computed on parent's non-transmitted alleles for educational attainment using the second GWAS meta-analysis article on educational attainment published by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium. Here we test the replication of these findings using a more powerful PRS from the third GWAS meta-analysis article by the Consortium. Each of the key findings of our previous paper is replicated using this improved PRS (N = 2335 adolescent twins and their genotyped parents). The association of children's attainment with their own PRS increased substantially with the standardized effect size, moving from β = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.079, 0.188 for EA2, to β = 0.223, 95% CI = 0.169, 0.278, p <.001, for EA3. Parent's PRS again predicted the socioeconomic status (SES) they provided to their offspring and increased from β = 0.201, 95% CI = 0.147, 0.256 to β = 0.286, 95% CI = 0.239, 0.333. Importantly, the PRS for alleles not transmitted to their offspring - therefore acting via the parenting environment - was increased in effect size from β = 0.058, 95% CI = 0.003, 0.114 to β = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.012, 0.122, p =.016. As previously found, this non-transmitted genetic effect was fully accounted for by parental SES. The findings reinforce the conclusion that genetic effects of parenting are substantial, explain approximately one-third the magnitude of an individual's own genetic inheritance and are mediated by parental socioeconomic competence.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTwin Research and Human Genetics
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Parenting
Parents
DNA
Genome-Wide Association Study
Social Class
Meta-Analysis
Alleles
Social Sciences
Mental Competency
Social Skills

Keywords

  • educational attainment
  • non-transmitted genotype
  • parental environment
  • parenting
  • polygenic risk scores
  • PRS
  • SES
  • socioeconomic status
  • virtual-parent design

Cite this

Bates, Timothy C. ; Maher, Brion S. ; Colodro-Conde, Lucía ; Medland, Sarah E. ; McAloney, Kerrie ; Wright, Margaret J. ; Hansell, Narelle K. ; Okbay, Aysu ; Kendler, Kenneth S. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Gillespie, Nathan A. / Social Competence in Parents Increases Children's Educational Attainment : Replicable Genetically-Mediated Effects of Parenting Revealed by Non-Transmitted DNA. In: Twin Research and Human Genetics. 2019.
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abstract = "We recently reported an association of offspring educational attainment with polygenic risk scores (PRS) computed on parent's non-transmitted alleles for educational attainment using the second GWAS meta-analysis article on educational attainment published by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium. Here we test the replication of these findings using a more powerful PRS from the third GWAS meta-analysis article by the Consortium. Each of the key findings of our previous paper is replicated using this improved PRS (N = 2335 adolescent twins and their genotyped parents). The association of children's attainment with their own PRS increased substantially with the standardized effect size, moving from β = 0.134, 95{\%} CI = 0.079, 0.188 for EA2, to β = 0.223, 95{\%} CI = 0.169, 0.278, p <.001, for EA3. Parent's PRS again predicted the socioeconomic status (SES) they provided to their offspring and increased from β = 0.201, 95{\%} CI = 0.147, 0.256 to β = 0.286, 95{\%} CI = 0.239, 0.333. Importantly, the PRS for alleles not transmitted to their offspring - therefore acting via the parenting environment - was increased in effect size from β = 0.058, 95{\%} CI = 0.003, 0.114 to β = 0.067, 95{\%} CI = 0.012, 0.122, p =.016. As previously found, this non-transmitted genetic effect was fully accounted for by parental SES. The findings reinforce the conclusion that genetic effects of parenting are substantial, explain approximately one-third the magnitude of an individual's own genetic inheritance and are mediated by parental socioeconomic competence.",
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Social Competence in Parents Increases Children's Educational Attainment : Replicable Genetically-Mediated Effects of Parenting Revealed by Non-Transmitted DNA. / Bates, Timothy C.; Maher, Brion S.; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Medland, Sarah E.; McAloney, Kerrie; Wright, Margaret J.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Okbay, Aysu; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Maher, Brion S.

AU - Colodro-Conde, Lucía

AU - Medland, Sarah E.

AU - McAloney, Kerrie

AU - Wright, Margaret J.

AU - Hansell, Narelle K.

AU - Okbay, Aysu

AU - Kendler, Kenneth S.

AU - Martin, Nicholas G.

AU - Gillespie, Nathan A.

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