State of the climate in 2014

Arlene P. Aaron-Morrison, Steven A. Ackerman, Nicolaus G. Adams, Robert F. Adler, Adelina Albanil, E. J. Alfaro, Rob Allan, Lincoln M. Alves, Jorge A. Amador, L. M. Andreassen, A. Arendt, Juan Arévalo, Derek S. Arndt, N. M. Arzhanova, M. M. Aschan, César Azorin-Molina, Viva Banzon, M. U. Bardin, Jonathan Barichivich, Molly O. Baringer & 449 others Sandra Barreira, Stephen Baxter, Juan Bazo, Andreas Becker, Kristopher M. Bedka, Michael J. Behrenfeld, Gerald D. Bell, M. Belmont, Angela Benedetti, G. Bernhard, Paul Berrisford, David I. Berry, María L. Bettolli, U. S. Bhatt, Mario Bidegain, Brian D. Bill, Sam Billheimer, Peter Bissolli, Eric S. Blake, Jessica Blunden, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, Dagne Boudet, J. E. Box, Tim Boyer, Geir O. Braathen, David H. Bromwich, R. Brown, Olga N. Bulygina, D. Burgess, Blanca Calderón, Suzana J. Camargo, Jayaka D. Campbell, J. Cappelen, Gualberto Carrasco, Brendan R. Carter, Don P. Chambers, Elise Chandler, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, Daniel Chung, E. S. Chung, Kathy Cinque, Kyle R. Clem, Caio A. Coelho, J. G. Cogley, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Steve Colwell, Owen R. Cooper, L. Copland, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica N. Cross, Molly J. Crotwell, Jake Crouch, Sean M. Davis, Elvira De Eyto, Richard A.M. De Jeu, Jos De Laat, Curtis L. Degasperi, Doug Degenstein, M. Demircan, C. Derksen, Dale Destin, Larry Di Girolamo, F. Di Giuseppe, Howard J. Diamond, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Kathleen Dohan, Martin T. Dokulil, A. V. Dolgov, A. Johannes Dolman, Catia M. Domingues, Markus G. Donat, Shenfu Dong, Wouter A. Dorigo, Quay Dortch, Greg Doucette, D. S. Drozdov, Hugh Ducklow, Robert J.H. Dunn, Ana M. Durán-Quesada, Geoff S. Dutton, A. Ebrahim, M. Elkharrim, James W. Elkins, Jhan C. Espinoza, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Thomas E. Evans, James S. Famiglietti, S. Farrell, S. Fateh, Robert S. Fausto, Nava Fedaeff, Richard A. Feely, Z. Feng, Chris Fenimore, X. Fettweis, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Chris T. Fogarty, Ryan L. Fogt, Chris Folland, C. Fonseca, M. Fossheim, Michael J. Foster, Andrew Fountain, S. D. Francis, Bryan A. Franz, Richard A. Frey, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Catherine Ganter, Silvia Garzoli, S. Gerland, Nadine Gobron, Stanley B. Goldenberg, R. Sorbonne Gomez, Gustavo Goni, A. Goto, J. U. Grooß, Alexander Gruber, Charles Chip Guard, Mauro Gugliemin, S. K. Gupta, J. M. Gutiérrez, S. Hagos, Sebastian Hahn, Leo Haimberger, J. Hakkarainen, Brad D. Hall, Michael S. Halpert, Benjamin D. Hamlington, E. Hanna, K. Hansen, I. Hanssen-Bauer, Ian Harris, Andrew K. Heidinger, A. Heikkilä, A. Heil, Richard R. Heim, S. Hendricks, Marieta Hernández, Hugo G. Hidalgo, Kyle Hilburn, Shu Peng Ben Ho, R. M. Holmes, Zeng Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Hannah K. Huelsing, George J. Huffman, C. Hughes, Dale F. Hurst, I. Ialongo, J. A. Ijampy, R. B. Ingvaldsen, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Masayoshi Ishii, Svetlana Jevrejeva, C. Jiménez, Xiangze Jin, E. Johannesen, Viju John, B. Johnsen, Bryan Johnson, Gregory C. Johnson, Philip D. Jones, Annie C. Joseph, Guillaume Jumaux, Khadija Kabidi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Seiji Kato, A. Kazemi, Linda M. Keller, Mike Kendon, John Kennedy, Kenneth Kerr, A. L. Kholodov, Mahbobeh Khoshkam, Rachel Killick, Hyungjun Kim, S. J. Kim, Todd B. Kimberlain, Philip J. Klotzbach, John A. Knaff, Shinya Kobayashi, J. Kohler, Johanna Korhonen, Natalia N. Korshunova, K. M. Kovacs, Natalya Kramarova, D. P. Kratz, Andries Kruger, Michael C. Kruk, Raphael Kudela, Arun Kumar, M. Lakatos, K. Lakkala, Mark A. Lander, Chris W. Landsea, Matthias Lankhorst, Kathleen Lantz, Matthew A. Lazzara, P. Lemons, Eric Leuliette, Michelle L’Heureux, Jan L. Lieser, I. I. Lin, Hongxing Liu, Yinghui Liu, Ricardo Locarnini, Norman G. Loeb, Claire Lo Monaco, Craig S. Long, Luis Alfonso López Álvarez, Andrew M. Lorrey, Diego Loyola, Rick Lumpkin, Jing Jia Luo, K. Luojus, C. Lydersen, John M. Lyman, Stephen C. Maberly, Brent C. Maddux, Andrea Malheiros Ramos, G. V. Malkova, G. Manney, Vernie Marcellin, S. S. Marchenko, José A. Marengo, John J. Marra, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, B. Martens, Rodney Martínez-Güingla, Robert A. Massom, Mauricio M. Mata, Jeremy T. Mathis, Linda May, Michael Mayer, Matthew Mazloff, Charlotte McBride, M. F. McCabe, M. McCarthy, J. W. McClelland, Simon McGree, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, W. Meier, Christopher S. Meinen, A. Mekonnen, Melisa Menéndez, G. Mengistu Tsidu, W. Paul Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Michael P. Meredith, Mark A. Merrifield, N. Metzl, Patrick Minnis, Diego G. Miralles, T. Mistelbauer, Gary T. Mitchum, Didier Monselesan, Pedro Monteiro, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, T. Mote, L. Mudryk, Jens Mühle, A. Brett Mullan, Eric R. Nash, Alberto C. Naveira-Garabato, R. Steven Nerem, Paul A. Newman, Juan José Nieto, Jeannette Noetzli, S. O’Neel, Tim J. Osborn, J. Overland, Lamjav Oyunjargal, Robert M. Parinussa, E. Hyung Park, David Parker, M. Parrington, A. Rost Parsons, Richard J. Pasch, Reynaldo Pascual-Ramírez, Andrew M. Paterson, Christoph Paulik, Petra R. Pearce, Mauri S. Pelto, Liang Peng, Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, D. Perovich, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Alexandre B. Pezza, David Phillips, Bernard Pinty, Michael C. Pitts, M. R. Pons, Avalon O. Porter, R. Primicerio, A. Proshutinsky, Sean Quegan, Juan Quintana, Fatemeh Rahimzadeh, Madhavan Rajeevan, L. Randriamarolaza, Vyacheslav N. Razuvaev, James Reagan, Phillip Reid, Christoph Reimer, Samuel Rémy, James A. Renwick, Jayashree V. Revadekar, J. Richter-Menge, Michael Riffler, Alon Rimmer, Steve Rintoul, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, José L. Rodríguez Solís, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, Josyane Ronchail, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, James A. Rusak, Christopher L. Sabine, Jean Bapiste Sallée, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, Michelle L. Santee, P. Sawaengphokhai, Amal Sayouri, Ted A. Scambos, Jae Schemm, S. Geoffrey Schladow, Claudia Schmid, Martin Schmid, Sunke Schmidtko, Carl J. Schreck, H. B. Selkirk, Uwe Send, Serhat Sensoy, Alberto Setzer, M. Sharp, Adrian Shaw, Lei Shi, A. I. Shiklomanov, Nikolai I. Shiklomanov, David A. Siegel, Sergio R. Signorini, Fatou Sima, Adrian J. Simmons, C. J.P.P. Smeets, Sharon L. Smith, Jaqueline M. Spence, A. K. Srivastava, Paul W. Stackhouse, Sharon Stammerjohn, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, José L. Stella, Martin Stengel, Roxann Stennett-Brown, Tannecia S. Stephenson, Susan Strahan, D. A. Streletskiy, Sunny Sun-Mack, Sebastiaan Swart, William Sweet, Lynne D. Talley, Gerard Tamar, S. E. Tank, Michael A. Taylor, M. Tedesco, Katrin Teubner, R. L. Thoman, Philip Thompson, L. Thomson, M. L. Timmermans, Joaquin A. Tirnanes, Skie Tobin, Katja Trachte, Vera L. Trainer, M. Tretiakov, Blair C. Trewin, Adrian R. Trotman, M. Tschudi, D. Van As, R. S.W. Van De Wal, Ronald J. van der A., Robin Van Der Schalie, Gerard Van Der Schrier, Guido R. Van Der Werf, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, I. Velicogna, Piet Verburg, Bala Vigneswaran, Lucie A. Vincent, Denis Volkov, Russell S. Vose, Wolfgang Wagner, Anna Wåhlin, J. Wahr, J. Walsh, Chunzai Wang, Junhong Wang, Lei Wang, M. Wang, Sheng Hung Wang, Rik Wanninkhof, Shohei Watanabe, Mark Weber, Robert A. Weller, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Robert Whitewood, Susan E. Wijffels, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Kate M. Willett, Michael J.M. Williams, Shem Willie, G. Wolken, Takmeng Wong, E. F. Wood, R. Iestyn Woolway, B. Wouters, Yan Xue, Ryuji Yamada, So Young Yim, Xungang Yin, Steven H. Young, Lisan Yu, H. Zahid, Eduardo Zambrano, Peiqun Zhang, Guanguo Zhao, Lin Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, S. Elizabeth Love-Brotak, Kristin Gilbert, Tom Maycock, Susan Osborne, Mara Sprain, Sara W. Veasey, Barbara J. Ambrose, Jessicca Griffin, Deborah J. Misch, Deborah B. Riddle, Teresa Young, Vladimir E. Romanovsky

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Most of the dozens of essential climate variables monitored each year in this report continued to follow their long-term trends in 2014, with several setting new records. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-the major greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-once again all reached record high average atmospheric concentrations for the year. Carbon dioxide increased by 1.9 ppm to reach a globally averaged value of 397.2 ppm for 2014. Altogether, 5 major and 15 minor greenhouse gases contributed 2.94 W m-2 of direct radiative forcing, which is 36% greater than their contributions just a quarter century ago. Accompanying the record-high greenhouse gas concentrations was nominally the highest annual global surface temperature in at least 135 years of modern record keeping, according to four independent observational analyses. The warmth was distributed widely around the globe's land areas, Europe observed its warmest year on record by a large margin, with close to two dozen countries breaking their previous national temperature records; many countries in Asia had annual temperatures among their 10 warmest on record; Africa reported above-average temperatures across most of the continent throughout 2014; Australia saw its third warmest year on record, following record heat there in 2013; Mexico had its warmest year on record; and Argentina and Uruguay each had their second warmest year on record. Eastern North America was the only major region to observe a below-average annual temperature. But it was the oceans that drove the record global surface temperature in 2014. Although 2014 was largely ENSO-neutral, the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) was the highest on record. The warmth was particularly notable in the North Pacific Ocean where SST anomalies signaled a transition from a negative to positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. In the winter of 2013/14, unusually warm water in the northeast Pacific was associated with elevated ocean heat content anomalies and elevated sea level in the region. Globally, upper ocean heat content was record high for the year, reflecting the continued increase of thermal energy in the oceans, which absorb over 90% of Earth's excess heat from greenhouse gas forcing. Owing to both ocean warming and land ice melt contributions, global mean sea level in 2014 was also record high and 67 mm greater than the 1993 annual mean, when satellite altimetry measurements began. Sea surface salinity trends over the past decade indicate that salty regions grew saltier while fresh regions became fresher, suggestive of an increased hydrological cycle over the ocean expected with global warming. As in previous years, these patterns are reflected in 2014 subsurface salinity anomalies as well. With a now decade-long trans-basin instrument array along 26°N, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows a decrease in transport of-4.2 ± 2.5 Sv decade-1. Precipitation was quite variable across the globe. On balance, precipitation over the world's oceans was above average, while below average across land surfaces. Drought continued in southeastern Brazil and the western United States. Heavy rain during April-June led to devastating floods in Canada's Eastern Prairies. Above-normal summer monsoon rainfall was observed over the southern coast of West Africa, while drier conditions prevailed over the eastern Sahel. Generally, summer monsoon rainfall over eastern Africa was above normal, except in parts of western South Sudan and Ethiopia. The south Asian summer monsoon in India was below normal, with June record dry. Across the major tropical cyclone basins, 91 named storms were observed during 2014, above the 1981-2010 global average of 82. The Eastern/Central Pacific and South Indian Ocean basins experienced significantly above-normal activity in 2014; all other basins were either at or below normal. The 22 named storms in the Eastern/Central Pacific was the basin's most since 1992. Similar to 2013, the North Atlantic season was quieter than most years of the last two decades with respect to the number of storms, despite the absence of El Niño conditions during both years. In higher latitudes and at higher elevations, increased warming continued to be visible in the decline of glacier mass balance, increasing permafrost temperatures, and a deeper thawing layer in seasonally frozen soil. In the Arctic, the 2014 temperature over land areas was the fourth highest in the 115-year period of record and snow melt occurred 20-30 days earlier than the 1998-2010 average. The Greenland Ice Sheet experienced extensive melting in summer 2014. The extent of melting was above the 1981-2010 average for 90% of the melt season, contributing to the second lowest average summer albedo over Greenland since observations began in 2000 and a record-low albedo across the ice sheet for August. On the North Slope of Alaska, new record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at four of five permafrost observatories. In September, Arctic minimum sea ice extent was the sixth lowest since satellite records began in 1979. The eight lowest sea ice extents during this period have occurred in the last eight years. Conversely, in the Antarctic, sea ice extent countered its declining trend and set several new records in 2014, including record high monthly mean sea ice extent each month from April to November. On 20 September, a record large daily Antarctic sea ice extent of 20.14 × 106 km2 occurred. The 2014 Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole was 20.9 million km2 when averaged from 7 September to 13 October, the sixth smallest on record and continuing a decrease, albeit statistically insignificant, in area since 1998.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S1-S267
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Volume96
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2015

Fingerprint

climate
sea ice
ocean
greenhouse gas
new record
summer
monsoon
temperature
melt
basin
permafrost
ice sheet
albedo
surface temperature
sea surface temperature
warming
melting
carbon dioxide
sea level
glacier mass balance

Cite this

Aaron-Morrison, A. P., Ackerman, S. A., Adams, N. G., Adler, R. F., Albanil, A., Alfaro, E. J., ... Romanovsky, V. E. (2015). State of the climate in 2014. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(7), S1-S267. https://doi.org/10.1175/2015bamsstateoftheclimate.1
Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P. ; Ackerman, Steven A. ; Adams, Nicolaus G. ; Adler, Robert F. ; Albanil, Adelina ; Alfaro, E. J. ; Allan, Rob ; Alves, Lincoln M. ; Amador, Jorge A. ; Andreassen, L. M. ; Arendt, A. ; Arévalo, Juan ; Arndt, Derek S. ; Arzhanova, N. M. ; Aschan, M. M. ; Azorin-Molina, César ; Banzon, Viva ; Bardin, M. U. ; Barichivich, Jonathan ; Baringer, Molly O. ; Barreira, Sandra ; Baxter, Stephen ; Bazo, Juan ; Becker, Andreas ; Bedka, Kristopher M. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Bell, Gerald D. ; Belmont, M. ; Benedetti, Angela ; Bernhard, G. ; Berrisford, Paul ; Berry, David I. ; Bettolli, María L. ; Bhatt, U. S. ; Bidegain, Mario ; Bill, Brian D. ; Billheimer, Sam ; Bissolli, Peter ; Blake, Eric S. ; Blunden, Jessica ; Bosilovich, Michael G. ; Boucher, Olivier ; Boudet, Dagne ; Box, J. E. ; Boyer, Tim ; Braathen, Geir O. ; Bromwich, David H. ; Brown, R. ; Bulygina, Olga N. ; Burgess, D. ; Calderón, Blanca ; Camargo, Suzana J. ; Campbell, Jayaka D. ; Cappelen, J. ; Carrasco, Gualberto ; Carter, Brendan R. ; Chambers, Don P. ; Chandler, Elise ; Christiansen, Hanne H. ; Christy, John R. ; Chung, Daniel ; Chung, E. S. ; Cinque, Kathy ; Clem, Kyle R. ; Coelho, Caio A. ; Cogley, J. G. ; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie ; Colwell, Steve ; Cooper, Owen R. ; Copland, L. ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Crotwell, Molly J. ; Crouch, Jake ; Davis, Sean M. ; De Eyto, Elvira ; De Jeu, Richard A.M. ; De Laat, Jos ; Degasperi, Curtis L. ; Degenstein, Doug ; Demircan, M. ; Derksen, C. ; Destin, Dale ; Di Girolamo, Larry ; Di Giuseppe, F. ; Diamond, Howard J. ; Dlugokencky, Ed J. ; Dohan, Kathleen ; Dokulil, Martin T. ; Dolgov, A. V. ; Dolman, A. Johannes ; Domingues, Catia M. ; Donat, Markus G. ; Dong, Shenfu ; Dorigo, Wouter A. ; Dortch, Quay ; Doucette, Greg ; Drozdov, D. S. ; Ducklow, Hugh ; Dunn, Robert J.H. ; Durán-Quesada, Ana M. ; Dutton, Geoff S. ; Ebrahim, A. ; Elkharrim, M. ; Elkins, James W. ; Espinoza, Jhan C. ; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl ; Evans, Thomas E. ; Famiglietti, James S. ; Farrell, S. ; Fateh, S. ; Fausto, Robert S. ; Fedaeff, Nava ; Feely, Richard A. ; Feng, Z. ; Fenimore, Chris ; Fettweis, X. ; Fioletov, Vitali E. ; Flemming, Johannes ; Fogarty, Chris T. ; Fogt, Ryan L. ; Folland, Chris ; Fonseca, C. ; Fossheim, M. ; Foster, Michael J. ; Fountain, Andrew ; Francis, S. D. ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Frey, Richard A. ; Frith, Stacey M. ; Froidevaux, Lucien ; Ganter, Catherine ; Garzoli, Silvia ; Gerland, S. ; Gobron, Nadine ; Goldenberg, Stanley B. ; Gomez, R. Sorbonne ; Goni, Gustavo ; Goto, A. ; Grooß, J. U. ; Gruber, Alexander ; Guard, Charles Chip ; Gugliemin, Mauro ; Gupta, S. K. ; Gutiérrez, J. M. ; Hagos, S. ; Hahn, Sebastian ; Haimberger, Leo ; Hakkarainen, J. ; Hall, Brad D. ; Halpert, Michael S. ; Hamlington, Benjamin D. ; Hanna, E. ; Hansen, K. ; Hanssen-Bauer, I. ; Harris, Ian ; Heidinger, Andrew K. ; Heikkilä, A. ; Heil, A. ; Heim, Richard R. ; Hendricks, S. ; Hernández, Marieta ; Hidalgo, Hugo G. ; Hilburn, Kyle ; Ho, Shu Peng Ben ; Holmes, R. M. ; Hu, Zeng Zhen ; Huang, Boyin ; Huelsing, Hannah K. ; Huffman, George J. ; Hughes, C. ; Hurst, Dale F. ; Ialongo, I. ; Ijampy, J. A. ; Ingvaldsen, R. B. ; Inness, Antje ; Isaksen, K. ; Ishii, Masayoshi ; Jevrejeva, Svetlana ; Jiménez, C. ; Jin, Xiangze ; Johannesen, E. ; John, Viju ; Johnsen, B. ; Johnson, Bryan ; Johnson, Gregory C. ; Jones, Philip D. ; Joseph, Annie C. ; Jumaux, Guillaume ; Kabidi, Khadija ; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Kato, Seiji ; Kazemi, A. ; Keller, Linda M. ; Kendon, Mike ; Kennedy, John ; Kerr, Kenneth ; Kholodov, A. L. ; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh ; Killick, Rachel ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Kim, S. J. ; Kimberlain, Todd B. ; Klotzbach, Philip J. ; Knaff, John A. ; Kobayashi, Shinya ; Kohler, J. ; Korhonen, Johanna ; Korshunova, Natalia N. ; Kovacs, K. M. ; Kramarova, Natalya ; Kratz, D. P. ; Kruger, Andries ; Kruk, Michael C. ; Kudela, Raphael ; Kumar, Arun ; Lakatos, M. ; Lakkala, K. ; Lander, Mark A. ; Landsea, Chris W. ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Lantz, Kathleen ; Lazzara, Matthew A. ; Lemons, P. ; Leuliette, Eric ; L’Heureux, Michelle ; Lieser, Jan L. ; Lin, I. I. ; Liu, Hongxing ; Liu, Yinghui ; Locarnini, Ricardo ; Loeb, Norman G. ; Lo Monaco, Claire ; Long, Craig S. ; López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso ; Lorrey, Andrew M. ; Loyola, Diego ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Luo, Jing Jia ; Luojus, K. ; Lydersen, C. ; Lyman, John M. ; Maberly, Stephen C. ; Maddux, Brent C. ; Malheiros Ramos, Andrea ; Malkova, G. V. ; Manney, G. ; Marcellin, Vernie ; Marchenko, S. S. ; Marengo, José A. ; Marra, John J. ; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz ; Martens, B. ; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney ; Massom, Robert A. ; Mata, Mauricio M. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; May, Linda ; Mayer, Michael ; Mazloff, Matthew ; McBride, Charlotte ; McCabe, M. F. ; McCarthy, M. ; McClelland, J. W. ; McGree, Simon ; McVicar, Tim R. ; Mears, Carl A. ; Meier, W. ; Meinen, Christopher S. ; Mekonnen, A. ; Menéndez, Melisa ; Mengistu Tsidu, G. ; Menzel, W. Paul ; Merchant, Christopher J. ; Meredith, Michael P. ; Merrifield, Mark A. ; Metzl, N. ; Minnis, Patrick ; Miralles, Diego G. ; Mistelbauer, T. ; Mitchum, Gary T. ; Monselesan, Didier ; Monteiro, Pedro ; Montzka, Stephen A. ; Morice, Colin ; Mote, T. ; Mudryk, L. ; Mühle, Jens ; Mullan, A. Brett ; Nash, Eric R. ; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C. ; Nerem, R. Steven ; Newman, Paul A. ; Nieto, Juan José ; Noetzli, Jeannette ; O’Neel, S. ; Osborn, Tim J. ; Overland, J. ; Oyunjargal, Lamjav ; Parinussa, Robert M. ; Park, E. Hyung ; Parker, David ; Parrington, M. ; Parsons, A. Rost ; Pasch, Richard J. ; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo ; Paterson, Andrew M. ; Paulik, Christoph ; Pearce, Petra R. ; Pelto, Mauri S. ; Peng, Liang ; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E. ; Perovich, D. ; Petropavlovskikh, Irina ; Pezza, Alexandre B. ; Phillips, David ; Pinty, Bernard ; Pitts, Michael C. ; Pons, M. R. ; Porter, Avalon O. ; Primicerio, R. ; Proshutinsky, A. ; Quegan, Sean ; Quintana, Juan ; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh ; Rajeevan, Madhavan ; Randriamarolaza, L. ; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N. ; Reagan, James ; Reid, Phillip ; Reimer, Christoph ; Rémy, Samuel ; Renwick, James A. ; Revadekar, Jayashree V. ; Richter-Menge, J. ; Riffler, Michael ; Rimmer, Alon ; Rintoul, Steve ; Robinson, David A. ; Rodell, Matthew ; Rodríguez Solís, José L. ; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. ; Ronchail, Josyane ; Rosenlof, Karen H. ; Roth, Chris ; Rusak, James A. ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Sallée, Jean Bapiste ; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira ; Santee, Michelle L. ; Sawaengphokhai, P. ; Sayouri, Amal ; Scambos, Ted A. ; Schemm, Jae ; Schladow, S. Geoffrey ; Schmid, Claudia ; Schmid, Martin ; Schmidtko, Sunke ; Schreck, Carl J. ; Selkirk, H. B. ; Send, Uwe ; Sensoy, Serhat ; Setzer, Alberto ; Sharp, M. ; Shaw, Adrian ; Shi, Lei ; Shiklomanov, A. I. ; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I. ; Siegel, David A. ; Signorini, Sergio R. ; Sima, Fatou ; Simmons, Adrian J. ; Smeets, C. J.P.P. ; Smith, Sharon L. ; Spence, Jaqueline M. ; Srivastava, A. K. ; Stackhouse, Paul W. ; Stammerjohn, Sharon ; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang ; Stella, José L. ; Stengel, Martin ; Stennett-Brown, Roxann ; Stephenson, Tannecia S. ; Strahan, Susan ; Streletskiy, D. A. ; Sun-Mack, Sunny ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Sweet, William ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Tamar, Gerard ; Tank, S. E. ; Taylor, Michael A. ; Tedesco, M. ; Teubner, Katrin ; Thoman, R. L. ; Thompson, Philip ; Thomson, L. ; Timmermans, M. L. ; Tirnanes, Joaquin A. ; Tobin, Skie ; Trachte, Katja ; Trainer, Vera L. ; Tretiakov, M. ; Trewin, Blair C. ; Trotman, Adrian R. ; Tschudi, M. ; Van As, D. ; Van De Wal, R. S.W. ; van der A., Ronald J. ; Van Der Schalie, Robin ; Van Der Schrier, Gerard ; Van Der Werf, Guido R. ; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J. ; Velicogna, I. ; Verburg, Piet ; Vigneswaran, Bala ; Vincent, Lucie A. ; Volkov, Denis ; Vose, Russell S. ; Wagner, Wolfgang ; Wåhlin, Anna ; Wahr, J. ; Walsh, J. ; Wang, Chunzai ; Wang, Junhong ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, M. ; Wang, Sheng Hung ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watanabe, Shohei ; Weber, Mark ; Weller, Robert A. ; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. ; Whitewood, Robert ; Wijffels, Susan E. ; Wilber, Anne C. ; Wild, Jeanette D. ; Willett, Kate M. ; Williams, Michael J.M. ; Willie, Shem ; Wolken, G. ; Wong, Takmeng ; Wood, E. F. ; Woolway, R. Iestyn ; Wouters, B. ; Xue, Yan ; Yamada, Ryuji ; Yim, So Young ; Yin, Xungang ; Young, Steven H. ; Yu, Lisan ; Zahid, H. ; Zambrano, Eduardo ; Zhang, Peiqun ; Zhao, Guanguo ; Zhou, Lin ; Ziemke, Jerry R. ; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth ; Gilbert, Kristin ; Maycock, Tom ; Osborne, Susan ; Sprain, Mara ; Veasey, Sara W. ; Ambrose, Barbara J. ; Griffin, Jessicca ; Misch, Deborah J. ; Riddle, Deborah B. ; Young, Teresa ; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. / State of the climate in 2014. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2015 ; Vol. 96, No. 7. pp. S1-S267.
@article{133b957ca8e447c19f1c1200c988f254,
title = "State of the climate in 2014",
abstract = "Most of the dozens of essential climate variables monitored each year in this report continued to follow their long-term trends in 2014, with several setting new records. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-the major greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-once again all reached record high average atmospheric concentrations for the year. Carbon dioxide increased by 1.9 ppm to reach a globally averaged value of 397.2 ppm for 2014. Altogether, 5 major and 15 minor greenhouse gases contributed 2.94 W m-2 of direct radiative forcing, which is 36{\%} greater than their contributions just a quarter century ago. Accompanying the record-high greenhouse gas concentrations was nominally the highest annual global surface temperature in at least 135 years of modern record keeping, according to four independent observational analyses. The warmth was distributed widely around the globe's land areas, Europe observed its warmest year on record by a large margin, with close to two dozen countries breaking their previous national temperature records; many countries in Asia had annual temperatures among their 10 warmest on record; Africa reported above-average temperatures across most of the continent throughout 2014; Australia saw its third warmest year on record, following record heat there in 2013; Mexico had its warmest year on record; and Argentina and Uruguay each had their second warmest year on record. Eastern North America was the only major region to observe a below-average annual temperature. But it was the oceans that drove the record global surface temperature in 2014. Although 2014 was largely ENSO-neutral, the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) was the highest on record. The warmth was particularly notable in the North Pacific Ocean where SST anomalies signaled a transition from a negative to positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. In the winter of 2013/14, unusually warm water in the northeast Pacific was associated with elevated ocean heat content anomalies and elevated sea level in the region. Globally, upper ocean heat content was record high for the year, reflecting the continued increase of thermal energy in the oceans, which absorb over 90{\%} of Earth's excess heat from greenhouse gas forcing. Owing to both ocean warming and land ice melt contributions, global mean sea level in 2014 was also record high and 67 mm greater than the 1993 annual mean, when satellite altimetry measurements began. Sea surface salinity trends over the past decade indicate that salty regions grew saltier while fresh regions became fresher, suggestive of an increased hydrological cycle over the ocean expected with global warming. As in previous years, these patterns are reflected in 2014 subsurface salinity anomalies as well. With a now decade-long trans-basin instrument array along 26°N, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows a decrease in transport of-4.2 ± 2.5 Sv decade-1. Precipitation was quite variable across the globe. On balance, precipitation over the world's oceans was above average, while below average across land surfaces. Drought continued in southeastern Brazil and the western United States. Heavy rain during April-June led to devastating floods in Canada's Eastern Prairies. Above-normal summer monsoon rainfall was observed over the southern coast of West Africa, while drier conditions prevailed over the eastern Sahel. Generally, summer monsoon rainfall over eastern Africa was above normal, except in parts of western South Sudan and Ethiopia. The south Asian summer monsoon in India was below normal, with June record dry. Across the major tropical cyclone basins, 91 named storms were observed during 2014, above the 1981-2010 global average of 82. The Eastern/Central Pacific and South Indian Ocean basins experienced significantly above-normal activity in 2014; all other basins were either at or below normal. The 22 named storms in the Eastern/Central Pacific was the basin's most since 1992. Similar to 2013, the North Atlantic season was quieter than most years of the last two decades with respect to the number of storms, despite the absence of El Ni{\~n}o conditions during both years. In higher latitudes and at higher elevations, increased warming continued to be visible in the decline of glacier mass balance, increasing permafrost temperatures, and a deeper thawing layer in seasonally frozen soil. In the Arctic, the 2014 temperature over land areas was the fourth highest in the 115-year period of record and snow melt occurred 20-30 days earlier than the 1998-2010 average. The Greenland Ice Sheet experienced extensive melting in summer 2014. The extent of melting was above the 1981-2010 average for 90{\%} of the melt season, contributing to the second lowest average summer albedo over Greenland since observations began in 2000 and a record-low albedo across the ice sheet for August. On the North Slope of Alaska, new record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at four of five permafrost observatories. In September, Arctic minimum sea ice extent was the sixth lowest since satellite records began in 1979. The eight lowest sea ice extents during this period have occurred in the last eight years. Conversely, in the Antarctic, sea ice extent countered its declining trend and set several new records in 2014, including record high monthly mean sea ice extent each month from April to November. On 20 September, a record large daily Antarctic sea ice extent of 20.14 × 106 km2 occurred. The 2014 Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole was 20.9 million km2 when averaged from 7 September to 13 October, the sixth smallest on record and continuing a decrease, albeit statistically insignificant, in area since 1998.",
author = "Aaron-Morrison, {Arlene P.} and Ackerman, {Steven A.} and Adams, {Nicolaus G.} and Adler, {Robert F.} and Adelina Albanil and Alfaro, {E. J.} and Rob Allan and Alves, {Lincoln M.} and Amador, {Jorge A.} and Andreassen, {L. M.} and A. Arendt and Juan Ar{\'e}valo and Arndt, {Derek S.} and Arzhanova, {N. M.} and Aschan, {M. M.} and C{\'e}sar Azorin-Molina and Viva Banzon and Bardin, {M. U.} and Jonathan Barichivich and Baringer, {Molly O.} and Sandra Barreira and Stephen Baxter and Juan Bazo and Andreas Becker and Bedka, {Kristopher M.} and Behrenfeld, {Michael J.} and Bell, {Gerald D.} and M. Belmont and Angela Benedetti and G. Bernhard and Paul Berrisford and Berry, {David I.} and Bettolli, {Mar{\'i}a L.} and Bhatt, {U. S.} and Mario Bidegain and Bill, {Brian D.} and Sam Billheimer and Peter Bissolli and Blake, {Eric S.} and Jessica Blunden and Bosilovich, {Michael G.} and Olivier Boucher and Dagne Boudet and Box, {J. E.} and Tim Boyer and Braathen, {Geir O.} and Bromwich, {David H.} and R. Brown and Bulygina, {Olga N.} and D. Burgess and Blanca Calder{\'o}n and Camargo, {Suzana J.} and Campbell, {Jayaka D.} and J. Cappelen and Gualberto Carrasco and Carter, {Brendan R.} and Chambers, {Don P.} and Elise Chandler and Christiansen, {Hanne H.} and Christy, {John R.} and Daniel Chung and Chung, {E. S.} and Kathy Cinque and Clem, {Kyle R.} and Coelho, {Caio A.} and Cogley, {J. G.} and Melanie Coldewey-Egbers and Steve Colwell and Cooper, {Owen R.} and L. Copland and Cosca, {Catherine E.} and Cross, {Jessica N.} and Crotwell, {Molly J.} and Jake Crouch and Davis, {Sean M.} and {De Eyto}, Elvira and {De Jeu}, {Richard A.M.} and {De Laat}, Jos and Degasperi, {Curtis L.} and Doug Degenstein and M. Demircan and C. Derksen and Dale Destin and {Di Girolamo}, Larry and {Di Giuseppe}, F. and Diamond, {Howard J.} and Dlugokencky, {Ed J.} and Kathleen Dohan and Dokulil, {Martin T.} and Dolgov, {A. V.} and Dolman, {A. Johannes} and Domingues, {Catia M.} and Donat, {Markus G.} and Shenfu Dong and Dorigo, {Wouter A.} and Quay Dortch and Greg Doucette and Drozdov, {D. S.} and Hugh Ducklow and Dunn, {Robert J.H.} and Dur{\'a}n-Quesada, {Ana M.} and Dutton, {Geoff S.} and A. Ebrahim and M. Elkharrim and Elkins, {James W.} and Espinoza, {Jhan C.} and Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc and Evans, {Thomas E.} and Famiglietti, {James S.} and S. Farrell and S. Fateh and Fausto, {Robert S.} and Nava Fedaeff and Feely, {Richard A.} and Z. Feng and Chris Fenimore and X. Fettweis and Fioletov, {Vitali E.} and Johannes Flemming and Fogarty, {Chris T.} and Fogt, {Ryan L.} and Chris Folland and C. Fonseca and M. Fossheim and Foster, {Michael J.} and Andrew Fountain and Francis, {S. D.} and Franz, {Bryan A.} and Frey, {Richard A.} and Frith, {Stacey M.} and Lucien Froidevaux and Catherine Ganter and Silvia Garzoli and S. Gerland and Nadine Gobron and Goldenberg, {Stanley B.} and Gomez, {R. Sorbonne} and Gustavo Goni and A. Goto and Groo{\ss}, {J. U.} and Alexander Gruber and Guard, {Charles Chip} and Mauro Gugliemin and Gupta, {S. K.} and Guti{\'e}rrez, {J. M.} and S. Hagos and Sebastian Hahn and Leo Haimberger and J. Hakkarainen and Hall, {Brad D.} and Halpert, {Michael S.} and Hamlington, {Benjamin D.} and E. Hanna and K. Hansen and I. Hanssen-Bauer and Ian Harris and Heidinger, {Andrew K.} and A. Heikkil{\"a} and A. Heil and Heim, {Richard R.} and S. Hendricks and Marieta Hern{\'a}ndez and Hidalgo, {Hugo G.} and Kyle Hilburn and Ho, {Shu Peng Ben} and Holmes, {R. M.} and Hu, {Zeng Zhen} and Boyin Huang and Huelsing, {Hannah K.} and Huffman, {George J.} and C. Hughes and Hurst, {Dale F.} and I. Ialongo and Ijampy, {J. A.} and Ingvaldsen, {R. B.} and Antje Inness and K. Isaksen and Masayoshi Ishii and Svetlana Jevrejeva and C. Jim{\'e}nez and Xiangze Jin and E. Johannesen and Viju John and B. Johnsen and Bryan Johnson and Johnson, {Gregory C.} and Jones, {Philip D.} and Joseph, {Annie C.} and Guillaume Jumaux and Khadija Kabidi and Kaiser, {Johannes W.} and Seiji Kato and A. Kazemi and Keller, {Linda M.} and Mike Kendon and John Kennedy and Kenneth Kerr and Kholodov, {A. L.} and Mahbobeh Khoshkam and Rachel Killick and Hyungjun Kim and Kim, {S. J.} and Kimberlain, {Todd B.} and Klotzbach, {Philip J.} and Knaff, {John A.} and Shinya Kobayashi and J. Kohler and Johanna Korhonen and Korshunova, {Natalia N.} and Kovacs, {K. M.} and Natalya Kramarova and Kratz, {D. P.} and Andries Kruger and Kruk, {Michael C.} and Raphael Kudela and Arun Kumar and M. Lakatos and K. Lakkala and Lander, {Mark A.} and Landsea, {Chris W.} and Matthias Lankhorst and Kathleen Lantz and Lazzara, {Matthew A.} and P. Lemons and Eric Leuliette and Michelle L’Heureux and Lieser, {Jan L.} and Lin, {I. I.} and Hongxing Liu and Yinghui Liu and Ricardo Locarnini and Loeb, {Norman G.} and {Lo Monaco}, Claire and Long, {Craig S.} and {L{\'o}pez {\'A}lvarez}, {Luis Alfonso} and Lorrey, {Andrew M.} and Diego Loyola and Rick Lumpkin and Luo, {Jing Jia} and K. Luojus and C. Lydersen and Lyman, {John M.} and Maberly, {Stephen C.} and Maddux, {Brent C.} and {Malheiros Ramos}, Andrea and Malkova, {G. V.} and G. Manney and Vernie Marcellin and Marchenko, {S. S.} and Marengo, {Jos{\'e} A.} and Marra, {John J.} and Wlodzimierz Marszelewski and B. Martens and Rodney Mart{\'i}nez-G{\"u}ingla and Massom, {Robert A.} and Mata, {Mauricio M.} and Mathis, {Jeremy T.} and Linda May and Michael Mayer and Matthew Mazloff and Charlotte McBride and McCabe, {M. F.} and M. McCarthy and McClelland, {J. W.} and Simon McGree and McVicar, {Tim R.} and Mears, {Carl A.} and W. Meier and Meinen, {Christopher S.} and A. Mekonnen and Melisa Men{\'e}ndez and {Mengistu Tsidu}, G. and Menzel, {W. Paul} and Merchant, {Christopher J.} and Meredith, {Michael P.} and Merrifield, {Mark A.} and N. Metzl and Patrick Minnis and Miralles, {Diego G.} and T. Mistelbauer and Mitchum, {Gary T.} and Didier Monselesan and Pedro Monteiro and Montzka, {Stephen A.} and Colin Morice and T. Mote and L. Mudryk and Jens M{\"u}hle and Mullan, {A. Brett} and Nash, {Eric R.} and Naveira-Garabato, {Alberto C.} and Nerem, {R. Steven} and Newman, {Paul A.} and Nieto, {Juan Jos{\'e}} and Jeannette Noetzli and S. O’Neel and Osborn, {Tim J.} and J. Overland and Lamjav Oyunjargal and Parinussa, {Robert M.} and Park, {E. Hyung} and David Parker and M. Parrington and Parsons, {A. Rost} and Pasch, {Richard J.} and Reynaldo Pascual-Ram{\'i}rez and Paterson, {Andrew M.} and Christoph Paulik and Pearce, {Petra R.} and Pelto, {Mauri S.} and Liang Peng and Perkins-Kirkpatrick, {Sarah E.} and D. Perovich and Irina Petropavlovskikh and Pezza, {Alexandre B.} and David Phillips and Bernard Pinty and Pitts, {Michael C.} and Pons, {M. R.} and Porter, {Avalon O.} and R. Primicerio and A. Proshutinsky and Sean Quegan and Juan Quintana and Fatemeh Rahimzadeh and Madhavan Rajeevan and L. Randriamarolaza and Razuvaev, {Vyacheslav N.} and James Reagan and Phillip Reid and Christoph Reimer and Samuel R{\'e}my and Renwick, {James A.} and Revadekar, {Jayashree V.} and J. Richter-Menge and Michael Riffler and Alon Rimmer and Steve Rintoul and Robinson, {David A.} and Matthew Rodell and {Rodr{\'i}guez Sol{\'i}s}, {Jos{\'e} L.} and Romanovsky, {Vladimir E.} and Josyane Ronchail and Rosenlof, {Karen H.} and Chris Roth and Rusak, {James A.} and Sabine, {Christopher L.} and Sall{\'e}e, {Jean Bapiste} and Ahira S{\'a}nchez-Lugo and Santee, {Michelle L.} and P. Sawaengphokhai and Amal Sayouri and Scambos, {Ted A.} and Jae Schemm and Schladow, {S. Geoffrey} and Claudia Schmid and Martin Schmid and Sunke Schmidtko and Schreck, {Carl J.} and Selkirk, {H. B.} and Uwe Send and Serhat Sensoy and Alberto Setzer and M. Sharp and Adrian Shaw and Lei Shi and Shiklomanov, {A. I.} and Shiklomanov, {Nikolai I.} and Siegel, {David A.} and Signorini, {Sergio R.} and Fatou Sima and Simmons, {Adrian J.} and Smeets, {C. J.P.P.} and Smith, {Sharon L.} and Spence, {Jaqueline M.} and Srivastava, {A. K.} and Stackhouse, {Paul W.} and Sharon Stammerjohn and Wolfgang Steinbrecht and Stella, {Jos{\'e} L.} and Martin Stengel and Roxann Stennett-Brown and Stephenson, {Tannecia S.} and Susan Strahan and Streletskiy, {D. A.} and Sunny Sun-Mack and Sebastiaan Swart and William Sweet and Talley, {Lynne D.} and Gerard Tamar and Tank, {S. E.} and Taylor, {Michael A.} and M. Tedesco and Katrin Teubner and Thoman, {R. L.} and Philip Thompson and L. Thomson and Timmermans, {M. L.} and Tirnanes, {Joaquin A.} and Skie Tobin and Katja Trachte and Trainer, {Vera L.} and M. Tretiakov and Trewin, {Blair C.} and Trotman, {Adrian R.} and M. Tschudi and {Van As}, D. and {Van De Wal}, {R. S.W.} and {van der A.}, {Ronald J.} and {Van Der Schalie}, Robin and {Van Der Schrier}, Gerard and {Van Der Werf}, {Guido R.} and {Van Meerbeeck}, {Cedric J.} and I. Velicogna and Piet Verburg and Bala Vigneswaran and Vincent, {Lucie A.} and Denis Volkov and Vose, {Russell S.} and Wolfgang Wagner and Anna W{\aa}hlin and J. Wahr and J. Walsh and Chunzai Wang and Junhong Wang and Lei Wang and M. Wang and Wang, {Sheng Hung} and Rik Wanninkhof and Shohei Watanabe and Mark Weber and Weller, {Robert A.} and Weyhenmeyer, {Gesa A.} and Robert Whitewood and Wijffels, {Susan E.} and Wilber, {Anne C.} and Wild, {Jeanette D.} and Willett, {Kate M.} and Williams, {Michael J.M.} and Shem Willie and G. Wolken and Takmeng Wong and Wood, {E. F.} and Woolway, {R. Iestyn} and B. Wouters and Yan Xue and Ryuji Yamada and Yim, {So Young} and Xungang Yin and Young, {Steven H.} and Lisan Yu and H. Zahid and Eduardo Zambrano and Peiqun Zhang and Guanguo Zhao and Lin Zhou and Ziemke, {Jerry R.} and Love-Brotak, {S. Elizabeth} and Kristin Gilbert and Tom Maycock and Susan Osborne and Mara Sprain and Veasey, {Sara W.} and Ambrose, {Barbara J.} and Jessicca Griffin and Misch, {Deborah J.} and Riddle, {Deborah B.} and Teresa Young and Romanovsky, {Vladimir E.}",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1175/2015bamsstateoftheclimate.1",
language = "English",
volume = "96",
pages = "S1--S267",
journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
issn = "0003-0007",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
number = "7",

}

Aaron-Morrison, AP, Ackerman, SA, Adams, NG, Adler, RF, Albanil, A, Alfaro, EJ, Allan, R, Alves, LM, Amador, JA, Andreassen, LM, Arendt, A, Arévalo, J, Arndt, DS, Arzhanova, NM, Aschan, MM, Azorin-Molina, C, Banzon, V, Bardin, MU, Barichivich, J, Baringer, MO, Barreira, S, Baxter, S, Bazo, J, Becker, A, Bedka, KM, Behrenfeld, MJ, Bell, GD, Belmont, M, Benedetti, A, Bernhard, G, Berrisford, P, Berry, DI, Bettolli, ML, Bhatt, US, Bidegain, M, Bill, BD, Billheimer, S, Bissolli, P, Blake, ES, Blunden, J, Bosilovich, MG, Boucher, O, Boudet, D, Box, JE, Boyer, T, Braathen, GO, Bromwich, DH, Brown, R, Bulygina, ON, Burgess, D, Calderón, B, Camargo, SJ, Campbell, JD, Cappelen, J, Carrasco, G, Carter, BR, Chambers, DP, Chandler, E, Christiansen, HH, Christy, JR, Chung, D, Chung, ES, Cinque, K, Clem, KR, Coelho, CA, Cogley, JG, Coldewey-Egbers, M, Colwell, S, Cooper, OR, Copland, L, Cosca, CE, Cross, JN, Crotwell, MJ, Crouch, J, Davis, SM, De Eyto, E, De Jeu, RAM, De Laat, J, Degasperi, CL, Degenstein, D, Demircan, M, Derksen, C, Destin, D, Di Girolamo, L, Di Giuseppe, F, Diamond, HJ, Dlugokencky, EJ, Dohan, K, Dokulil, MT, Dolgov, AV, Dolman, AJ, Domingues, CM, Donat, MG, Dong, S, Dorigo, WA, Dortch, Q, Doucette, G, Drozdov, DS, Ducklow, H, Dunn, RJH, Durán-Quesada, AM, Dutton, GS, Ebrahim, A, Elkharrim, M, Elkins, JW, Espinoza, JC, Etienne-Leblanc, S, Evans, TE, Famiglietti, JS, Farrell, S, Fateh, S, Fausto, RS, Fedaeff, N, Feely, RA, Feng, Z, Fenimore, C, Fettweis, X, Fioletov, VE, Flemming, J, Fogarty, CT, Fogt, RL, Folland, C, Fonseca, C, Fossheim, M, Foster, MJ, Fountain, A, Francis, SD, Franz, BA, Frey, RA, Frith, SM, Froidevaux, L, Ganter, C, Garzoli, S, Gerland, S, Gobron, N, Goldenberg, SB, Gomez, RS, Goni, G, Goto, A, Grooß, JU, Gruber, A, Guard, CC, Gugliemin, M, Gupta, SK, Gutiérrez, JM, Hagos, S, Hahn, S, Haimberger, L, Hakkarainen, J, Hall, BD, Halpert, MS, Hamlington, BD, Hanna, E, Hansen, K, Hanssen-Bauer, I, Harris, I, Heidinger, AK, Heikkilä, A, Heil, A, Heim, RR, Hendricks, S, Hernández, M, Hidalgo, HG, Hilburn, K, Ho, SPB, Holmes, RM, Hu, ZZ, Huang, B, Huelsing, HK, Huffman, GJ, Hughes, C, Hurst, DF, Ialongo, I, Ijampy, JA, Ingvaldsen, RB, Inness, A, Isaksen, K, Ishii, M, Jevrejeva, S, Jiménez, C, Jin, X, Johannesen, E, John, V, Johnsen, B, Johnson, B, Johnson, GC, Jones, PD, Joseph, AC, Jumaux, G, Kabidi, K, Kaiser, JW, Kato, S, Kazemi, A, Keller, LM, Kendon, M, Kennedy, J, Kerr, K, Kholodov, AL, Khoshkam, M, Killick, R, Kim, H, Kim, SJ, Kimberlain, TB, Klotzbach, PJ, Knaff, JA, Kobayashi, S, Kohler, J, Korhonen, J, Korshunova, NN, Kovacs, KM, Kramarova, N, Kratz, DP, Kruger, A, Kruk, MC, Kudela, R, Kumar, A, Lakatos, M, Lakkala, K, Lander, MA, Landsea, CW, Lankhorst, M, Lantz, K, Lazzara, MA, Lemons, P, Leuliette, E, L’Heureux, M, Lieser, JL, Lin, II, Liu, H, Liu, Y, Locarnini, R, Loeb, NG, Lo Monaco, C, Long, CS, López Álvarez, LA, Lorrey, AM, Loyola, D, Lumpkin, R, Luo, JJ, Luojus, K, Lydersen, C, Lyman, JM, Maberly, SC, Maddux, BC, Malheiros Ramos, A, Malkova, GV, Manney, G, Marcellin, V, Marchenko, SS, Marengo, JA, Marra, JJ, Marszelewski, W, Martens, B, Martínez-Güingla, R, Massom, RA, Mata, MM, Mathis, JT, May, L, Mayer, M, Mazloff, M, McBride, C, McCabe, MF, McCarthy, M, McClelland, JW, McGree, S, McVicar, TR, Mears, CA, Meier, W, Meinen, CS, Mekonnen, A, Menéndez, M, Mengistu Tsidu, G, Menzel, WP, Merchant, CJ, Meredith, MP, Merrifield, MA, Metzl, N, Minnis, P, Miralles, DG, Mistelbauer, T, Mitchum, GT, Monselesan, D, Monteiro, P, Montzka, SA, Morice, C, Mote, T, Mudryk, L, Mühle, J, Mullan, AB, Nash, ER, Naveira-Garabato, AC, Nerem, RS, Newman, PA, Nieto, JJ, Noetzli, J, O’Neel, S, Osborn, TJ, Overland, J, Oyunjargal, L, Parinussa, RM, Park, EH, Parker, D, Parrington, M, Parsons, AR, Pasch, RJ, Pascual-Ramírez, R, Paterson, AM, Paulik, C, Pearce, PR, Pelto, MS, Peng, L, Perkins-Kirkpatrick, SE, Perovich, D, Petropavlovskikh, I, Pezza, AB, Phillips, D, Pinty, B, Pitts, MC, Pons, MR, Porter, AO, Primicerio, R, Proshutinsky, A, Quegan, S, Quintana, J, Rahimzadeh, F, Rajeevan, M, Randriamarolaza, L, Razuvaev, VN, Reagan, J, Reid, P, Reimer, C, Rémy, S, Renwick, JA, Revadekar, JV, Richter-Menge, J, Riffler, M, Rimmer, A, Rintoul, S, Robinson, DA, Rodell, M, Rodríguez Solís, JL, Romanovsky, VE, Ronchail, J, Rosenlof, KH, Roth, C, Rusak, JA, Sabine, CL, Sallée, JB, Sánchez-Lugo, A, Santee, ML, Sawaengphokhai, P, Sayouri, A, Scambos, TA, Schemm, J, Schladow, SG, Schmid, C, Schmid, M, Schmidtko, S, Schreck, CJ, Selkirk, HB, Send, U, Sensoy, S, Setzer, A, Sharp, M, Shaw, A, Shi, L, Shiklomanov, AI, Shiklomanov, NI, Siegel, DA, Signorini, SR, Sima, F, Simmons, AJ, Smeets, CJPP, Smith, SL, Spence, JM, Srivastava, AK, Stackhouse, PW, Stammerjohn, S, Steinbrecht, W, Stella, JL, Stengel, M, Stennett-Brown, R, Stephenson, TS, Strahan, S, Streletskiy, DA, Sun-Mack, S, Swart, S, Sweet, W, Talley, LD, Tamar, G, Tank, SE, Taylor, MA, Tedesco, M, Teubner, K, Thoman, RL, Thompson, P, Thomson, L, Timmermans, ML, Tirnanes, JA, Tobin, S, Trachte, K, Trainer, VL, Tretiakov, M, Trewin, BC, Trotman, AR, Tschudi, M, Van As, D, Van De Wal, RSW, van der A., RJ, Van Der Schalie, R, Van Der Schrier, G, Van Der Werf, GR, Van Meerbeeck, CJ, Velicogna, I, Verburg, P, Vigneswaran, B, Vincent, LA, Volkov, D, Vose, RS, Wagner, W, Wåhlin, A, Wahr, J, Walsh, J, Wang, C, Wang, J, Wang, L, Wang, M, Wang, SH, Wanninkhof, R, Watanabe, S, Weber, M, Weller, RA, Weyhenmeyer, GA, Whitewood, R, Wijffels, SE, Wilber, AC, Wild, JD, Willett, KM, Williams, MJM, Willie, S, Wolken, G, Wong, T, Wood, EF, Woolway, RI, Wouters, B, Xue, Y, Yamada, R, Yim, SY, Yin, X, Young, SH, Yu, L, Zahid, H, Zambrano, E, Zhang, P, Zhao, G, Zhou, L, Ziemke, JR, Love-Brotak, SE, Gilbert, K, Maycock, T, Osborne, S, Sprain, M, Veasey, SW, Ambrose, BJ, Griffin, J, Misch, DJ, Riddle, DB, Young, T & Romanovsky, VE 2015, 'State of the climate in 2014' Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 96, no. 7, pp. S1-S267. https://doi.org/10.1175/2015bamsstateoftheclimate.1

State of the climate in 2014. / Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Adler, Robert F.; Albanil, Adelina; Alfaro, E. J.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Arendt, A.; Arévalo, Juan; Arndt, Derek S.; Arzhanova, N. M.; Aschan, M. M.; Azorin-Molina, César; Banzon, Viva; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Bazo, Juan; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bettolli, María L.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bidegain, Mario; Bill, Brian D.; Billheimer, Sam; Bissolli, Peter; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Boudet, Dagne; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderón, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrasco, Gualberto; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Chandler, Elise; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, Daniel; Chung, E. S.; Cinque, Kathy; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A.; Cogley, J. G.; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica N.; Crotwell, Molly J.; Crouch, Jake; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A.M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Destin, Dale; Di Girolamo, Larry; Di Giuseppe, F.; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolgov, A. V.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Dortch, Quay; Doucette, Greg; Drozdov, D. S.; Ducklow, Hugh; Dunn, Robert J.H.; Durán-Quesada, Ana M.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Ebrahim, A.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl; Evans, Thomas E.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fateh, S.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fedaeff, Nava; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogarty, Chris T.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Fonseca, C.; Fossheim, M.; Foster, Michael J.; Fountain, Andrew; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Garzoli, Silvia; Gerland, S.; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Gomez, R. Sorbonne; Goni, Gustavo; Goto, A.; Grooß, J. U.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles Chip; Gugliemin, Mauro; Gupta, S. K.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hakkarainen, J.; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hansen, K.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heikkilä, A.; Heil, A.; Heim, Richard R.; Hendricks, S.; Hernández, Marieta; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hilburn, Kyle; Ho, Shu Peng Ben; Holmes, R. M.; Hu, Zeng Zhen; Huang, Boyin; Huelsing, Hannah K.; Huffman, George J.; Hughes, C.; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Ingvaldsen, R. B.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jiménez, C.; Jin, Xiangze; Johannesen, E.; John, Viju; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Philip D.; Joseph, Annie C.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kendon, Mike; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. J.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kobayashi, Shinya; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kovacs, K. M.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Kudela, Raphael; Kumar, Arun; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lander, Mark A.; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lantz, Kathleen; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Lemons, P.; Leuliette, Eric; L’Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I. I.; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Long, Craig S.; López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing Jia; Luojus, K.; Lydersen, C.; Lyman, John M.; Maberly, Stephen C.; Maddux, Brent C.; Malheiros Ramos, Andrea; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, José A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; Mata, Mauricio M.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; McBride, Charlotte; McCabe, M. F.; McCarthy, M.; McClelland, J. W.; McGree, Simon; McVicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Mekonnen, A.; Menéndez, Melisa; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Metzl, N.; Minnis, Patrick; Miralles, Diego G.; Mistelbauer, T.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Monselesan, Didier; Monteiro, Pedro; Montzka, Stephen A.; Morice, Colin; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Mühle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Nash, Eric R.; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan José; Noetzli, Jeannette; O’Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Parinussa, Robert M.; Park, E. Hyung; Parker, David; Parrington, M.; Parsons, A. Rost; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Paulik, Christoph; Pearce, Petra R.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, David; Pinty, Bernard; Pitts, Michael C.; Pons, M. R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Primicerio, R.; Proshutinsky, A.; Quegan, Sean; Quintana, Juan; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Randriamarolaza, L.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Rémy, Samuel; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-Menge, J.; Riffler, Michael; Rimmer, Alon; Rintoul, Steve; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rodríguez Solís, José L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Sallée, Jean Bapiste; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schemm, Jae; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schreck, Carl J.; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Setzer, Alberto; Sharp, M.; Shaw, Adrian; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeets, C. J.P.P.; Smith, Sharon L.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, José L.; Stengel, Martin; Stennett-Brown, Roxann; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, D. A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Talley, Lynne D.; Tamar, Gerard; Tank, S. E.; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Teubner, Katrin; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, Philip; Thomson, L.; Timmermans, M. L.; Tirnanes, Joaquin A.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trainer, Vera L.; Tretiakov, M.; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S.W.; van der A., Ronald J.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vigneswaran, Bala; Vincent, Lucie A.; Volkov, Denis; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wåhlin, Anna; Wahr, J.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng Hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Williams, Michael J.M.; Willie, Shem; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yamada, Ryuji; Yim, So Young; Yin, Xungang; Young, Steven H.; Yu, Lisan; Zahid, H.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhou, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth; Gilbert, Kristin; Maycock, Tom; Osborne, Susan; Sprain, Mara; Veasey, Sara W.; Ambrose, Barbara J.; Griffin, Jessicca; Misch, Deborah J.; Riddle, Deborah B.; Young, Teresa; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, No. 7, 01.07.2015, p. S1-S267.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - State of the climate in 2014

AU - Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.

AU - Ackerman, Steven A.

AU - Adams, Nicolaus G.

AU - Adler, Robert F.

AU - Albanil, Adelina

AU - Alfaro, E. J.

AU - Allan, Rob

AU - Alves, Lincoln M.

AU - Amador, Jorge A.

AU - Andreassen, L. M.

AU - Arendt, A.

AU - Arévalo, Juan

AU - Arndt, Derek S.

AU - Arzhanova, N. M.

AU - Aschan, M. M.

AU - Azorin-Molina, César

AU - Banzon, Viva

AU - Bardin, M. U.

AU - Barichivich, Jonathan

AU - Baringer, Molly O.

AU - Barreira, Sandra

AU - Baxter, Stephen

AU - Bazo, Juan

AU - Becker, Andreas

AU - Bedka, Kristopher M.

AU - Behrenfeld, Michael J.

AU - Bell, Gerald D.

AU - Belmont, M.

AU - Benedetti, Angela

AU - Bernhard, G.

AU - Berrisford, Paul

AU - Berry, David I.

AU - Bettolli, María L.

AU - Bhatt, U. S.

AU - Bidegain, Mario

AU - Bill, Brian D.

AU - Billheimer, Sam

AU - Bissolli, Peter

AU - Blake, Eric S.

AU - Blunden, Jessica

AU - Bosilovich, Michael G.

AU - Boucher, Olivier

AU - Boudet, Dagne

AU - Box, J. E.

AU - Boyer, Tim

AU - Braathen, Geir O.

AU - Bromwich, David H.

AU - Brown, R.

AU - Bulygina, Olga N.

AU - Burgess, D.

AU - Calderón, Blanca

AU - Camargo, Suzana J.

AU - Campbell, Jayaka D.

AU - Cappelen, J.

AU - Carrasco, Gualberto

AU - Carter, Brendan R.

AU - Chambers, Don P.

AU - Chandler, Elise

AU - Christiansen, Hanne H.

AU - Christy, John R.

AU - Chung, Daniel

AU - Chung, E. S.

AU - Cinque, Kathy

AU - Clem, Kyle R.

AU - Coelho, Caio A.

AU - Cogley, J. G.

AU - Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie

AU - Colwell, Steve

AU - Cooper, Owen R.

AU - Copland, L.

AU - Cosca, Catherine E.

AU - Cross, Jessica N.

AU - Crotwell, Molly J.

AU - Crouch, Jake

AU - Davis, Sean M.

AU - De Eyto, Elvira

AU - De Jeu, Richard A.M.

AU - De Laat, Jos

AU - Degasperi, Curtis L.

AU - Degenstein, Doug

AU - Demircan, M.

AU - Derksen, C.

AU - Destin, Dale

AU - Di Girolamo, Larry

AU - Di Giuseppe, F.

AU - Diamond, Howard J.

AU - Dlugokencky, Ed J.

AU - Dohan, Kathleen

AU - Dokulil, Martin T.

AU - Dolgov, A. V.

AU - Dolman, A. Johannes

AU - Domingues, Catia M.

AU - Donat, Markus G.

AU - Dong, Shenfu

AU - Dorigo, Wouter A.

AU - Dortch, Quay

AU - Doucette, Greg

AU - Drozdov, D. S.

AU - Ducklow, Hugh

AU - Dunn, Robert J.H.

AU - Durán-Quesada, Ana M.

AU - Dutton, Geoff S.

AU - Ebrahim, A.

AU - Elkharrim, M.

AU - Elkins, James W.

AU - Espinoza, Jhan C.

AU - Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl

AU - Evans, Thomas E.

AU - Famiglietti, James S.

AU - Farrell, S.

AU - Fateh, S.

AU - Fausto, Robert S.

AU - Fedaeff, Nava

AU - Feely, Richard A.

AU - Feng, Z.

AU - Fenimore, Chris

AU - Fettweis, X.

AU - Fioletov, Vitali E.

AU - Flemming, Johannes

AU - Fogarty, Chris T.

AU - Fogt, Ryan L.

AU - Folland, Chris

AU - Fonseca, C.

AU - Fossheim, M.

AU - Foster, Michael J.

AU - Fountain, Andrew

AU - Francis, S. D.

AU - Franz, Bryan A.

AU - Frey, Richard A.

AU - Frith, Stacey M.

AU - Froidevaux, Lucien

AU - Ganter, Catherine

AU - Garzoli, Silvia

AU - Gerland, S.

AU - Gobron, Nadine

AU - Goldenberg, Stanley B.

AU - Gomez, R. Sorbonne

AU - Goni, Gustavo

AU - Goto, A.

AU - Grooß, J. U.

AU - Gruber, Alexander

AU - Guard, Charles Chip

AU - Gugliemin, Mauro

AU - Gupta, S. K.

AU - Gutiérrez, J. M.

AU - Hagos, S.

AU - Hahn, Sebastian

AU - Haimberger, Leo

AU - Hakkarainen, J.

AU - Hall, Brad D.

AU - Halpert, Michael S.

AU - Hamlington, Benjamin D.

AU - Hanna, E.

AU - Hansen, K.

AU - Hanssen-Bauer, I.

AU - Harris, Ian

AU - Heidinger, Andrew K.

AU - Heikkilä, A.

AU - Heil, A.

AU - Heim, Richard R.

AU - Hendricks, S.

AU - Hernández, Marieta

AU - Hidalgo, Hugo G.

AU - Hilburn, Kyle

AU - Ho, Shu Peng Ben

AU - Holmes, R. M.

AU - Hu, Zeng Zhen

AU - Huang, Boyin

AU - Huelsing, Hannah K.

AU - Huffman, George J.

AU - Hughes, C.

AU - Hurst, Dale F.

AU - Ialongo, I.

AU - Ijampy, J. A.

AU - Ingvaldsen, R. B.

AU - Inness, Antje

AU - Isaksen, K.

AU - Ishii, Masayoshi

AU - Jevrejeva, Svetlana

AU - Jiménez, C.

AU - Jin, Xiangze

AU - Johannesen, E.

AU - John, Viju

AU - Johnsen, B.

AU - Johnson, Bryan

AU - Johnson, Gregory C.

AU - Jones, Philip D.

AU - Joseph, Annie C.

AU - Jumaux, Guillaume

AU - Kabidi, Khadija

AU - Kaiser, Johannes W.

AU - Kato, Seiji

AU - Kazemi, A.

AU - Keller, Linda M.

AU - Kendon, Mike

AU - Kennedy, John

AU - Kerr, Kenneth

AU - Kholodov, A. L.

AU - Khoshkam, Mahbobeh

AU - Killick, Rachel

AU - Kim, Hyungjun

AU - Kim, S. J.

AU - Kimberlain, Todd B.

AU - Klotzbach, Philip J.

AU - Knaff, John A.

AU - Kobayashi, Shinya

AU - Kohler, J.

AU - Korhonen, Johanna

AU - Korshunova, Natalia N.

AU - Kovacs, K. M.

AU - Kramarova, Natalya

AU - Kratz, D. P.

AU - Kruger, Andries

AU - Kruk, Michael C.

AU - Kudela, Raphael

AU - Kumar, Arun

AU - Lakatos, M.

AU - Lakkala, K.

AU - Lander, Mark A.

AU - Landsea, Chris W.

AU - Lankhorst, Matthias

AU - Lantz, Kathleen

AU - Lazzara, Matthew A.

AU - Lemons, P.

AU - Leuliette, Eric

AU - L’Heureux, Michelle

AU - Lieser, Jan L.

AU - Lin, I. I.

AU - Liu, Hongxing

AU - Liu, Yinghui

AU - Locarnini, Ricardo

AU - Loeb, Norman G.

AU - Lo Monaco, Claire

AU - Long, Craig S.

AU - López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso

AU - Lorrey, Andrew M.

AU - Loyola, Diego

AU - Lumpkin, Rick

AU - Luo, Jing Jia

AU - Luojus, K.

AU - Lydersen, C.

AU - Lyman, John M.

AU - Maberly, Stephen C.

AU - Maddux, Brent C.

AU - Malheiros Ramos, Andrea

AU - Malkova, G. V.

AU - Manney, G.

AU - Marcellin, Vernie

AU - Marchenko, S. S.

AU - Marengo, José A.

AU - Marra, John J.

AU - Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz

AU - Martens, B.

AU - Martínez-Güingla, Rodney

AU - Massom, Robert A.

AU - Mata, Mauricio M.

AU - Mathis, Jeremy T.

AU - May, Linda

AU - Mayer, Michael

AU - Mazloff, Matthew

AU - McBride, Charlotte

AU - McCabe, M. F.

AU - McCarthy, M.

AU - McClelland, J. W.

AU - McGree, Simon

AU - McVicar, Tim R.

AU - Mears, Carl A.

AU - Meier, W.

AU - Meinen, Christopher S.

AU - Mekonnen, A.

AU - Menéndez, Melisa

AU - Mengistu Tsidu, G.

AU - Menzel, W. Paul

AU - Merchant, Christopher J.

AU - Meredith, Michael P.

AU - Merrifield, Mark A.

AU - Metzl, N.

AU - Minnis, Patrick

AU - Miralles, Diego G.

AU - Mistelbauer, T.

AU - Mitchum, Gary T.

AU - Monselesan, Didier

AU - Monteiro, Pedro

AU - Montzka, Stephen A.

AU - Morice, Colin

AU - Mote, T.

AU - Mudryk, L.

AU - Mühle, Jens

AU - Mullan, A. Brett

AU - Nash, Eric R.

AU - Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.

AU - Nerem, R. Steven

AU - Newman, Paul A.

AU - Nieto, Juan José

AU - Noetzli, Jeannette

AU - O’Neel, S.

AU - Osborn, Tim J.

AU - Overland, J.

AU - Oyunjargal, Lamjav

AU - Parinussa, Robert M.

AU - Park, E. Hyung

AU - Parker, David

AU - Parrington, M.

AU - Parsons, A. Rost

AU - Pasch, Richard J.

AU - Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo

AU - Paterson, Andrew M.

AU - Paulik, Christoph

AU - Pearce, Petra R.

AU - Pelto, Mauri S.

AU - Peng, Liang

AU - Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.

AU - Perovich, D.

AU - Petropavlovskikh, Irina

AU - Pezza, Alexandre B.

AU - Phillips, David

AU - Pinty, Bernard

AU - Pitts, Michael C.

AU - Pons, M. R.

AU - Porter, Avalon O.

AU - Primicerio, R.

AU - Proshutinsky, A.

AU - Quegan, Sean

AU - Quintana, Juan

AU - Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh

AU - Rajeevan, Madhavan

AU - Randriamarolaza, L.

AU - Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.

AU - Reagan, James

AU - Reid, Phillip

AU - Reimer, Christoph

AU - Rémy, Samuel

AU - Renwick, James A.

AU - Revadekar, Jayashree V.

AU - Richter-Menge, J.

AU - Riffler, Michael

AU - Rimmer, Alon

AU - Rintoul, Steve

AU - Robinson, David A.

AU - Rodell, Matthew

AU - Rodríguez Solís, José L.

AU - Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

AU - Ronchail, Josyane

AU - Rosenlof, Karen H.

AU - Roth, Chris

AU - Rusak, James A.

AU - Sabine, Christopher L.

AU - Sallée, Jean Bapiste

AU - Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira

AU - Santee, Michelle L.

AU - Sawaengphokhai, P.

AU - Sayouri, Amal

AU - Scambos, Ted A.

AU - Schemm, Jae

AU - Schladow, S. Geoffrey

AU - Schmid, Claudia

AU - Schmid, Martin

AU - Schmidtko, Sunke

AU - Schreck, Carl J.

AU - Selkirk, H. B.

AU - Send, Uwe

AU - Sensoy, Serhat

AU - Setzer, Alberto

AU - Sharp, M.

AU - Shaw, Adrian

AU - Shi, Lei

AU - Shiklomanov, A. I.

AU - Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.

AU - Siegel, David A.

AU - Signorini, Sergio R.

AU - Sima, Fatou

AU - Simmons, Adrian J.

AU - Smeets, C. J.P.P.

AU - Smith, Sharon L.

AU - Spence, Jaqueline M.

AU - Srivastava, A. K.

AU - Stackhouse, Paul W.

AU - Stammerjohn, Sharon

AU - Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

AU - Stella, José L.

AU - Stengel, Martin

AU - Stennett-Brown, Roxann

AU - Stephenson, Tannecia S.

AU - Strahan, Susan

AU - Streletskiy, D. A.

AU - Sun-Mack, Sunny

AU - Swart, Sebastiaan

AU - Sweet, William

AU - Talley, Lynne D.

AU - Tamar, Gerard

AU - Tank, S. E.

AU - Taylor, Michael A.

AU - Tedesco, M.

AU - Teubner, Katrin

AU - Thoman, R. L.

AU - Thompson, Philip

AU - Thomson, L.

AU - Timmermans, M. L.

AU - Tirnanes, Joaquin A.

AU - Tobin, Skie

AU - Trachte, Katja

AU - Trainer, Vera L.

AU - Tretiakov, M.

AU - Trewin, Blair C.

AU - Trotman, Adrian R.

AU - Tschudi, M.

AU - Van As, D.

AU - Van De Wal, R. S.W.

AU - van der A., Ronald J.

AU - Van Der Schalie, Robin

AU - Van Der Schrier, Gerard

AU - Van Der Werf, Guido R.

AU - Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.

AU - Velicogna, I.

AU - Verburg, Piet

AU - Vigneswaran, Bala

AU - Vincent, Lucie A.

AU - Volkov, Denis

AU - Vose, Russell S.

AU - Wagner, Wolfgang

AU - Wåhlin, Anna

AU - Wahr, J.

AU - Walsh, J.

AU - Wang, Chunzai

AU - Wang, Junhong

AU - Wang, Lei

AU - Wang, M.

AU - Wang, Sheng Hung

AU - Wanninkhof, Rik

AU - Watanabe, Shohei

AU - Weber, Mark

AU - Weller, Robert A.

AU - Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

AU - Whitewood, Robert

AU - Wijffels, Susan E.

AU - Wilber, Anne C.

AU - Wild, Jeanette D.

AU - Willett, Kate M.

AU - Williams, Michael J.M.

AU - Willie, Shem

AU - Wolken, G.

AU - Wong, Takmeng

AU - Wood, E. F.

AU - Woolway, R. Iestyn

AU - Wouters, B.

AU - Xue, Yan

AU - Yamada, Ryuji

AU - Yim, So Young

AU - Yin, Xungang

AU - Young, Steven H.

AU - Yu, Lisan

AU - Zahid, H.

AU - Zambrano, Eduardo

AU - Zhang, Peiqun

AU - Zhao, Guanguo

AU - Zhou, Lin

AU - Ziemke, Jerry R.

AU - Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth

AU - Gilbert, Kristin

AU - Maycock, Tom

AU - Osborne, Susan

AU - Sprain, Mara

AU - Veasey, Sara W.

AU - Ambrose, Barbara J.

AU - Griffin, Jessicca

AU - Misch, Deborah J.

AU - Riddle, Deborah B.

AU - Young, Teresa

AU - Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - Most of the dozens of essential climate variables monitored each year in this report continued to follow their long-term trends in 2014, with several setting new records. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-the major greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-once again all reached record high average atmospheric concentrations for the year. Carbon dioxide increased by 1.9 ppm to reach a globally averaged value of 397.2 ppm for 2014. Altogether, 5 major and 15 minor greenhouse gases contributed 2.94 W m-2 of direct radiative forcing, which is 36% greater than their contributions just a quarter century ago. Accompanying the record-high greenhouse gas concentrations was nominally the highest annual global surface temperature in at least 135 years of modern record keeping, according to four independent observational analyses. The warmth was distributed widely around the globe's land areas, Europe observed its warmest year on record by a large margin, with close to two dozen countries breaking their previous national temperature records; many countries in Asia had annual temperatures among their 10 warmest on record; Africa reported above-average temperatures across most of the continent throughout 2014; Australia saw its third warmest year on record, following record heat there in 2013; Mexico had its warmest year on record; and Argentina and Uruguay each had their second warmest year on record. Eastern North America was the only major region to observe a below-average annual temperature. But it was the oceans that drove the record global surface temperature in 2014. Although 2014 was largely ENSO-neutral, the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) was the highest on record. The warmth was particularly notable in the North Pacific Ocean where SST anomalies signaled a transition from a negative to positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. In the winter of 2013/14, unusually warm water in the northeast Pacific was associated with elevated ocean heat content anomalies and elevated sea level in the region. Globally, upper ocean heat content was record high for the year, reflecting the continued increase of thermal energy in the oceans, which absorb over 90% of Earth's excess heat from greenhouse gas forcing. Owing to both ocean warming and land ice melt contributions, global mean sea level in 2014 was also record high and 67 mm greater than the 1993 annual mean, when satellite altimetry measurements began. Sea surface salinity trends over the past decade indicate that salty regions grew saltier while fresh regions became fresher, suggestive of an increased hydrological cycle over the ocean expected with global warming. As in previous years, these patterns are reflected in 2014 subsurface salinity anomalies as well. With a now decade-long trans-basin instrument array along 26°N, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows a decrease in transport of-4.2 ± 2.5 Sv decade-1. Precipitation was quite variable across the globe. On balance, precipitation over the world's oceans was above average, while below average across land surfaces. Drought continued in southeastern Brazil and the western United States. Heavy rain during April-June led to devastating floods in Canada's Eastern Prairies. Above-normal summer monsoon rainfall was observed over the southern coast of West Africa, while drier conditions prevailed over the eastern Sahel. Generally, summer monsoon rainfall over eastern Africa was above normal, except in parts of western South Sudan and Ethiopia. The south Asian summer monsoon in India was below normal, with June record dry. Across the major tropical cyclone basins, 91 named storms were observed during 2014, above the 1981-2010 global average of 82. The Eastern/Central Pacific and South Indian Ocean basins experienced significantly above-normal activity in 2014; all other basins were either at or below normal. The 22 named storms in the Eastern/Central Pacific was the basin's most since 1992. Similar to 2013, the North Atlantic season was quieter than most years of the last two decades with respect to the number of storms, despite the absence of El Niño conditions during both years. In higher latitudes and at higher elevations, increased warming continued to be visible in the decline of glacier mass balance, increasing permafrost temperatures, and a deeper thawing layer in seasonally frozen soil. In the Arctic, the 2014 temperature over land areas was the fourth highest in the 115-year period of record and snow melt occurred 20-30 days earlier than the 1998-2010 average. The Greenland Ice Sheet experienced extensive melting in summer 2014. The extent of melting was above the 1981-2010 average for 90% of the melt season, contributing to the second lowest average summer albedo over Greenland since observations began in 2000 and a record-low albedo across the ice sheet for August. On the North Slope of Alaska, new record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at four of five permafrost observatories. In September, Arctic minimum sea ice extent was the sixth lowest since satellite records began in 1979. The eight lowest sea ice extents during this period have occurred in the last eight years. Conversely, in the Antarctic, sea ice extent countered its declining trend and set several new records in 2014, including record high monthly mean sea ice extent each month from April to November. On 20 September, a record large daily Antarctic sea ice extent of 20.14 × 106 km2 occurred. The 2014 Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole was 20.9 million km2 when averaged from 7 September to 13 October, the sixth smallest on record and continuing a decrease, albeit statistically insignificant, in area since 1998.

AB - Most of the dozens of essential climate variables monitored each year in this report continued to follow their long-term trends in 2014, with several setting new records. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-the major greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-once again all reached record high average atmospheric concentrations for the year. Carbon dioxide increased by 1.9 ppm to reach a globally averaged value of 397.2 ppm for 2014. Altogether, 5 major and 15 minor greenhouse gases contributed 2.94 W m-2 of direct radiative forcing, which is 36% greater than their contributions just a quarter century ago. Accompanying the record-high greenhouse gas concentrations was nominally the highest annual global surface temperature in at least 135 years of modern record keeping, according to four independent observational analyses. The warmth was distributed widely around the globe's land areas, Europe observed its warmest year on record by a large margin, with close to two dozen countries breaking their previous national temperature records; many countries in Asia had annual temperatures among their 10 warmest on record; Africa reported above-average temperatures across most of the continent throughout 2014; Australia saw its third warmest year on record, following record heat there in 2013; Mexico had its warmest year on record; and Argentina and Uruguay each had their second warmest year on record. Eastern North America was the only major region to observe a below-average annual temperature. But it was the oceans that drove the record global surface temperature in 2014. Although 2014 was largely ENSO-neutral, the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) was the highest on record. The warmth was particularly notable in the North Pacific Ocean where SST anomalies signaled a transition from a negative to positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. In the winter of 2013/14, unusually warm water in the northeast Pacific was associated with elevated ocean heat content anomalies and elevated sea level in the region. Globally, upper ocean heat content was record high for the year, reflecting the continued increase of thermal energy in the oceans, which absorb over 90% of Earth's excess heat from greenhouse gas forcing. Owing to both ocean warming and land ice melt contributions, global mean sea level in 2014 was also record high and 67 mm greater than the 1993 annual mean, when satellite altimetry measurements began. Sea surface salinity trends over the past decade indicate that salty regions grew saltier while fresh regions became fresher, suggestive of an increased hydrological cycle over the ocean expected with global warming. As in previous years, these patterns are reflected in 2014 subsurface salinity anomalies as well. With a now decade-long trans-basin instrument array along 26°N, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows a decrease in transport of-4.2 ± 2.5 Sv decade-1. Precipitation was quite variable across the globe. On balance, precipitation over the world's oceans was above average, while below average across land surfaces. Drought continued in southeastern Brazil and the western United States. Heavy rain during April-June led to devastating floods in Canada's Eastern Prairies. Above-normal summer monsoon rainfall was observed over the southern coast of West Africa, while drier conditions prevailed over the eastern Sahel. Generally, summer monsoon rainfall over eastern Africa was above normal, except in parts of western South Sudan and Ethiopia. The south Asian summer monsoon in India was below normal, with June record dry. Across the major tropical cyclone basins, 91 named storms were observed during 2014, above the 1981-2010 global average of 82. The Eastern/Central Pacific and South Indian Ocean basins experienced significantly above-normal activity in 2014; all other basins were either at or below normal. The 22 named storms in the Eastern/Central Pacific was the basin's most since 1992. Similar to 2013, the North Atlantic season was quieter than most years of the last two decades with respect to the number of storms, despite the absence of El Niño conditions during both years. In higher latitudes and at higher elevations, increased warming continued to be visible in the decline of glacier mass balance, increasing permafrost temperatures, and a deeper thawing layer in seasonally frozen soil. In the Arctic, the 2014 temperature over land areas was the fourth highest in the 115-year period of record and snow melt occurred 20-30 days earlier than the 1998-2010 average. The Greenland Ice Sheet experienced extensive melting in summer 2014. The extent of melting was above the 1981-2010 average for 90% of the melt season, contributing to the second lowest average summer albedo over Greenland since observations began in 2000 and a record-low albedo across the ice sheet for August. On the North Slope of Alaska, new record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at four of five permafrost observatories. In September, Arctic minimum sea ice extent was the sixth lowest since satellite records began in 1979. The eight lowest sea ice extents during this period have occurred in the last eight years. Conversely, in the Antarctic, sea ice extent countered its declining trend and set several new records in 2014, including record high monthly mean sea ice extent each month from April to November. On 20 September, a record large daily Antarctic sea ice extent of 20.14 × 106 km2 occurred. The 2014 Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole was 20.9 million km2 when averaged from 7 September to 13 October, the sixth smallest on record and continuing a decrease, albeit statistically insignificant, in area since 1998.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84939813863&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84939813863&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1175/2015bamsstateoftheclimate.1

DO - 10.1175/2015bamsstateoftheclimate.1

M3 - Article

VL - 96

SP - S1-S267

JO - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

JF - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

SN - 0003-0007

IS - 7

ER -

Aaron-Morrison AP, Ackerman SA, Adams NG, Adler RF, Albanil A, Alfaro EJ et al. State of the climate in 2014. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2015 Jul 1;96(7):S1-S267. https://doi.org/10.1175/2015bamsstateoftheclimate.1