State of the climate in 2015

Arlene P. Aaron-Morrison, Steven A. Ackerman, Nicolaus G. Adams, Robert F. Adler, Adelina Albanil, Eric J. Alfaro, Rob Allan, Lincoln M. Alves, Jorge A. Amador, L. M. Andreassen, A. Arendt, Juan Arévalo, Derek S. Arndt, N. M. Arzhanova, M. M. Aschan, César Azorin-Molina, Viva Banzon, M. U. Bardin, Jonathan Barichivich, Molly O. Baringer & 448 others Sandra Barreira, Stephen Baxter, Juan Bazo, Andreas Becker, Kristopher M. Bedka, Michael J. Behrenfeld, Gerald D. Bell, M. Belmont, Angela Benedetti, G. Bernhard, Paul Berrisford, David I. Berry, María L. Bettolli, Uma S. Bhatt, Mario Bidegain, Brian D. Bill, Sam Billheimer, Peter Bissolli, Eric S. Blake, Jessica Blunden, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, Dagne R. Boudet, Jason E. Box, Tim Boyer, Geir O. Braathen, David H. Bromwich, R. Brown, Olga N. Bulygina, D. Burgess, Blanca Calderón, Suzana J. Camargo, Jayaka D. Campbell, J. Cappelen, Gualberto Carrasco, Brendan R. Carter, Don P. Chambers, Elise Chandler, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, Daniel Chung, E.S. Chung, Kathy Cinque, Kyle R. Clem, Caio A. Coelho, J.G. Cogley, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Steve Colwell, Owen R. Cooper, L. Copland, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica N. Cross, Molly J. Crotwell, Jake Crouch, Sean M. Davis, Elvira De Eyto, Richard A.M. De Jeu, Jos De Laat, Curtis L. Degasperi, Doug Degenstein, M. Demircan, C. Derksen, Dale Destin, Larry Di Girolamo, F. Di Giuseppe, Howard J. Diamond, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Kathleen Dohan, Martin T. Dokulil, A. V. Dolgov, A. Johannes Dolman, Catia M. Domingues, Markus G. Donat, Shenfu Dong, Wouter A. Dorigo, Quay Dortch, Greg Doucette, Dmitry S. Drozdov, Hugh Ducklow, Robert J.H. Dunn, Ana M. Durán-Quesada, Geoff S. Dutton, A. Ebrahim, M. Elkharrim, James W. Elkins, Jhan C. Espinoza, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Thomas E. Evans, James S. Famiglietti, S.A. Farrell, S. Fateh, Robert S. Fausto, Nava Fedaeff, Richard A. Feely, Z. Feng, Chris Fenimore, Xavier Fettweis, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Chris T. Fogarty, Ryan L. Fogt, Chris Folland, C. Fonseca, M. Fossheim, Michael J. Foster, Andrew Fountain, S. D. Francis, Bryan A. Franz, Richard A. Frey, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Catherine Ganter, Silvia Garzoli, S. Gerland, Nadine Gobron, Stanley B. Goldenberg, R. Sorbonne Gomez, Gustavo J. Goni, A. Goto, J. U. Grooß, Alexander Gruber, Charles Chip Guard, Mauro Gugliemin, S. K. Gupta, J. M. Gutiérrez, S. Hagos, Sebastian Hahn, Leo Haimberger, J. Hakkarainen, Brad D. Hall, Michael S. Halpert, Benjamin D. Hamlington, E.Y. Hanna, K. Hansen, I. Hanssen-Bauer, Ian A Harris, Andrew K. Heidinger, A. Heikkilä, A. Heil, Richard R., Jr. Heim, S. Hendricks, Marieta Hernández, Hugo G. Hidalgo, Kyle Hilburn, Shu Peng Ben Ho, R. Max Holmes, Zeng Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Hannah K. Huelsing, George J. Huffman, N.C. Hughes, Dale F. Hurst, I. Ialongo, J. A. Ijampy, R. B. Ingvaldsen, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Masayoshi Ishii, Svetlana Jevrejeva, C. Jiménez, Xiangze Jin, E. Johannesen, Viju John, K. Borch-Johnsen, Bryan Johnson, Gregory C. Johnson, Philip D. Jones, Annie C. Joseph, Guillaume Jumaux, Khadija Kabidi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Seiji Kato, A. Kazemi, Linda M. Keller, Mike Kendon, John J. Kennedy, Kenneth Kerr, A. L. Kholodov, Mahbobeh Khoshkam, Rachel Killick, Hyungjun Kim, S. J. Kim, Todd B. Kimberlain, Philip J. Klotzbach, John A. Knaff, Shinya Kobayashi, J. Kohler, Johanna Korhonen, Natalia N. Korshunova, K.M. Kovacs, Natalya Kramarova, David P. Kratz, Andries Kruger, Michael C. Kruk, Raphael Kudela, Arun Kumar, M. Lakatos, K. Lakkala, Mark A. Lander, Chris W. Landsea, Matthias Lankhorst, Kathleen Lantz, Matthew A. Lazzara, P. Lemons, Eric Leuliette, Michelle L’Heureux, Jan L. Lieser, I. I. Lin, Hongxing Liu, Yinghui Liu, Ricardo Locarnini, Norman G. Loeb, Claire Lo Monaco, Craig S. Long, Luis Alfonso López Álvarez, Andrew M. Lorrey, Diego Loyola, Rick Lumpkin, Jing-Jia Luo, K. Luojus, C. Lydersen, John M. Lyman, Stephen C. Maberly, Brent C. Maddux, Andrea Malheiros Ramos, G. V. Malkova, G.L. Manney, Vernie Marcellin, Sergey Marchenko, José A. Marengo, John J. Marra, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, B. Martens, Rodney Martínez-Güingla, Robert A. Massom, Mauricio M. Mata, Jeremy T. Mathis, Linda May, Michael Mayer, Matthew Mazloff, Charlotte McBride, M.F. McCabe, M. McCarthy, J.W. McClelland, Simon McGree, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Walt Meier, Christopher S. Meinen, A. Mekonnen, Melisa Menéndez, G. Mengistu Tsidu, W. Paul Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Michael P. Meredith, Mark A. Merrifield, N. Metzl, Patrick Minnis, Diego G. Miralles, T. Mistelbauer, Gary T. Mitchum, Didier Monselesan, Pedro M S Monteiro, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, Thomas Mote, L. Mudryk, Jens Mühle, A. Brett Mullan, Eric R. Nash, Alberto C. Naveira-Garabato, Steven R. Nerem, Paul A. Newman, Juan José Nieto, Jeannette Noetzli, S. O’Neel, Tim J. Osborn, James Overland, Lamjav Oyunjargal, Robert M. Parinussa, E. Hyung Park, David Parker, M. Parrington, A. Rost Parsons, Richard J. Pasch, Reynaldo Pascual-Ramírez, Andrew M. Paterson, Christoph Paulik, Petra R. Pearce, Mauri S. Pelto, Liang Peng, Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Donald Perovich, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Alexandre B. Pezza, David Phillips, Bernard Pinty, Michael C. Pitts, M. R. Pons, Avalon O. Porter, R. Primicerio, A. Proshutinsky, Sean Quegan, Juan Quintana, Fatemeh Rahimzadeh, Madhavan Rajeevan, L. Randriamarolaza, Vyacheslav N. Razuvaev, James R. Reagan, Phillip Reid, Christoph Reimer, Samuel Rémy, James A. Renwick, Jayashree V. Revadekar, Jacqueline Richter-Menge, Michael Riffler, Alon Rimmer, Steve Rintoul, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, José L. Rodríguez Solís, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, Josyane Ronchail, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, James A. Rusak, Christopher L. Sabine, Jean Bapiste Sallée, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, Michelle L. Santee, P. Sawaengphokhai, Amal Sayouri, Ted A. Scambos, Jae Schemm, S. Geoffrey Schladow, Claudia Schmid, Martin Schmid, Sunke Schmidtko, Carl J. Schreck, H. B. Selkirk, Uwe Send, Serhat Sensoy, Alberto Setzer, M. Sharp, Adrian Shaw, Lei Shi, A. I. Shiklomanov, Nikolai I. Shiklomanov, David A. Siegel, Sergio R. Signorini, Fatou Sima, Adrian J. Simmons, C. J.P.P. Smeets, Sharon L. Smith, Jaqueline M. Spence, A. K. Srivastava, Paul W., Jr. Stackhouse, Sharon Stammerjohn, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, José L. Stella, Martin Stengel, Roxann Stennett-Brown, Tannecia S. Stephenson, Susan Strahan, D. A. Streletskiy, Sunny Sun-Mack, Sebastiaan Swart, William Sweet, Lynne D. Talley, Gerard Tamar, S.E. Tank, Michael A. Taylor, M. Tedesco, Katrin Teubner, R. L. Thoman, Philip Thompson, L. Thomson, M. L. Timmermans, Joaquin A. Tirnanes, Skie Tobin, Katja Trachte, Vera L. Trainer, M. Tretiakov, Blair C. Trewin, Adrian R. Trotman, M. Tschudi, D. van As, R.S.W. van de Wal, Ronald J. van der A, Robin Van Der Schalie, Gerard Van Der Schrier, Guido R. Van Der Werf, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, I. Velicogna, Piet Verburg, Bala Vigneswaran, Lucie A. Vincent, Denis Volkov, Russell S. Vose, Wolfgang Wagner, Anna Wåhlin, John Wahr, John Walsh, Chunzai Wang, Junhong Wang, Lei Wang, M. Wang, Sheng-Hung Wang, Rik Wanninkhof, Shohei Watanabe, Mark Weber, Robert A. Weller, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Robert Whitewood, Susan E. Wijffels, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Kate M. Willett, Michael J.M. Williams, Shem Willie, Gabriel Wolken, Takmeng Wong, E. F. Wood, R. Iestyn Woolway, B. Wouters, Yan Xue, Ryuji Yamada, So Young Yim, Xungang Yin, Steven H. Young, Lisan Yu, H. Zahid, Eduardo Zambrano, Peiqun Zhang, Guanguo Zhao, Lin Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, S. Elizabeth Love-Brotak, Kristin Gilbert, Tom Maycock, Susan Osborne, Mara Sprain, Sara W. Veasey, Barbara J. Ambrose, Jessicca Griffin, Deborah J. Misch, Deborah B. Riddle, Teresa Young

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Abstract

In 2015, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—all continued to reach new high levels. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the annual CO2 concentration increased by a record 3.1 ppm, exceeding 400 ppm for the first time on record. The 2015 global CO2 average neared this threshold, at 399.4 ppm. Additionally, one of the strongest El Niño events since at least 1950 developed in spring 2015 and continued to evolve through the year. The phenomenon was far reaching, impacting many regions across the globe and affecting most aspects of the climate system. Owing to the combination of El Niño and a long-term upward trend, Earth observed record warmth for the second consecutive year, with the 2015 annual global surface temperature surpassing the previous record by more than 0.1°C and exceeding the average for the mid- to late 19th century—commonly considered representative of preindustrial conditions—by more than 1°C for the first time. Above Earth’s surface, lower troposphere temperatures were near-record high. Across land surfaces, record to near-record warmth was reported across every inhabited continent. Twelve countries, including Russia and China, reported record high annual temperatures. In June, one of the most severe heat waves since 1980 affected Karachi, Pakistan, claiming over 1000 lives. On 27 October, Vredendal, South Africa, reached 48.4°C, a new global high temperature record for this month. In the Arctic, the 2015 land surface temperature was 1.2°C above the 1981–2010 average, tying 2007 and 2011 for the highest annual temperature and representing a 2.8°C increase since the record began in 1900. Increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 25 February 2015, the lowest maximum sea ice extent in the 37-year satellite record was observed, 7% below the 1981–2010 average. Mean sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean during August in ice-free regions, representative of Arctic Ocean summer anomalies, ranged from ~0°C to 8°C above average. As a consequence of sea ice retreat and warming oceans, vast walrus herds in the Pacific Arctic are hauling out on land rather than on sea ice, raising concern about the energetics of females and young animals. Increasing temperatures in the Barents Sea are linked to a community-wide shift in fish populations: boreal communities are now farther north, and long-standing Arctic species have been almost pushed out of the area. Above average sea surface temperatures are not confined to the Arctic. Sea surface temperature for 2015 was record high at the global scale; however, the North Atlantic southeast of Greenland remained colder than average and colder than 2014. Global annual ocean heat content and mean sea level also reached new record highs. The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50% of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012. Other aspects of the cryosphere were remarkable. Alpine glacier retreat continued, and preliminary data indicate that 2015 is the 36th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, late-spring snow cover extent continued its trend of decline, with June the second lowest in the 49-year satellite record. Below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, increasing by up to 0.66°C decade–1 since 2000. In the Antarctic, surface pressure and temperatures were lower than the 1981–2010 average for most of the year, consistent with the primarily positive southern annular mode, which saw a record high index value of +4.92 in February. Antarctic sea ice extent and area had large intra-annual variability, with a shift from record high levels in May to record low levels in August. Springtime ozone depletion resulted in one of the largest and most persistent Antarctic ozone holes observed since the 1990s. Closer to the equator, 101 named tropical storms were observed in 2015, well above the 1981–2010 average of 82. The eastern/central Pacific had 26 named storms, the most since 1992. The western north Pacific and north and south Indian Ocean basins also saw high activity. Globally, eight tropical cyclones reached the Saffir–Simpson Category 5 intensity level. Overlaying a general increase in the hydrologic cycle, the strong El Niño enhanced precipitation variability around the world. An above-normal rainy season led to major floods in Paraguay, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. In May, the United States recorded its all-time wettest month in its 121-year national record. Denmark and Norway reported their second and third wettest year on record, respectively, but globally soil moisture was below average, terrestrial groundwater storage was the lowest in the 14-year record, and areas in “severe” drought rose from 8% in 2014 to 14% in 2015. Drought conditions prevailed across many Caribbean island nations, Colombia, Venezuela, and northeast Brazil for most of the year. Several South Pacific countries also experienced drought. Lack of rainfall across Ethiopia led to its worst drought in decades and affected millions of people, while prolonged drought in South Africa severely affected agricultural production. Indian summer monsoon rainfall was just 86% of average. Extremely dry conditions in Indonesia resulted in intense and widespread fires during August–November that produced abundant carbonaceous aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone. Overall, emissions from tropical Asian biomass burning in 2015 were almost three times the 2001–14 average.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S1-S275
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Volume97
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016

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climate
sea ice
drought
surface temperature
sea surface temperature
temperature
land surface
ozone
glacier retreat
ice retreat
cryosphere
rainfall
valley glacier
ozone depletion
ocean
summer
surface pressure
ocean basin
biomass burning
tropical cyclone

Cite this

Aaron-Morrison, A. P., Ackerman, S. A., Adams, N. G., Adler, R. F., Albanil, A., Alfaro, E. J., ... Young, T. (2016). State of the climate in 2015. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(8), S1-S275. https://doi.org/10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P. ; Ackerman, Steven A. ; Adams, Nicolaus G. ; Adler, Robert F. ; Albanil, Adelina ; Alfaro, Eric J. ; Allan, Rob ; Alves, Lincoln M. ; Amador, Jorge A. ; Andreassen, L. M. ; Arendt, A. ; Arévalo, Juan ; Arndt, Derek S. ; Arzhanova, N. M. ; Aschan, M. M. ; Azorin-Molina, César ; Banzon, Viva ; Bardin, M. U. ; Barichivich, Jonathan ; Baringer, Molly O. ; Barreira, Sandra ; Baxter, Stephen ; Bazo, Juan ; Becker, Andreas ; Bedka, Kristopher M. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Bell, Gerald D. ; Belmont, M. ; Benedetti, Angela ; Bernhard, G. ; Berrisford, Paul ; Berry, David I. ; Bettolli, María L. ; Bhatt, Uma S. ; Bidegain, Mario ; Bill, Brian D. ; Billheimer, Sam ; Bissolli, Peter ; Blake, Eric S. ; Blunden, Jessica ; Bosilovich, Michael G. ; Boucher, Olivier ; Boudet, Dagne R. ; Box, Jason E. ; Boyer, Tim ; Braathen, Geir O. ; Bromwich, David H. ; Brown, R. ; Bulygina, Olga N. ; Burgess, D. ; Calderón, Blanca ; Camargo, Suzana J. ; Campbell, Jayaka D. ; Cappelen, J. ; Carrasco, Gualberto ; Carter, Brendan R. ; Chambers, Don P. ; Chandler, Elise ; Christiansen, Hanne H. ; Christy, John R. ; Chung, Daniel ; Chung, E.S. ; Cinque, Kathy ; Clem, Kyle R. ; Coelho, Caio A. ; Cogley, J.G. ; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie ; Colwell, Steve ; Cooper, Owen R. ; Copland, L. ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Crotwell, Molly J. ; Crouch, Jake ; Davis, Sean M. ; De Eyto, Elvira ; De Jeu, Richard A.M. ; De Laat, Jos ; Degasperi, Curtis L. ; Degenstein, Doug ; Demircan, M. ; Derksen, C. ; Destin, Dale ; Di Girolamo, Larry ; Di Giuseppe, F. ; Diamond, Howard J. ; Dlugokencky, Ed J. ; Dohan, Kathleen ; Dokulil, Martin T. ; Dolgov, A. V. ; Dolman, A. Johannes ; Domingues, Catia M. ; Donat, Markus G. ; Dong, Shenfu ; Dorigo, Wouter A. ; Dortch, Quay ; Doucette, Greg ; Drozdov, Dmitry S. ; Ducklow, Hugh ; Dunn, Robert J.H. ; Durán-Quesada, Ana M. ; Dutton, Geoff S. ; Ebrahim, A. ; Elkharrim, M. ; Elkins, James W. ; Espinoza, Jhan C. ; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl ; Evans, Thomas E. ; Famiglietti, James S. ; Farrell, S.A. ; Fateh, S. ; Fausto, Robert S. ; Fedaeff, Nava ; Feely, Richard A. ; Feng, Z. ; Fenimore, Chris ; Fettweis, Xavier ; Fioletov, Vitali E. ; Flemming, Johannes ; Fogarty, Chris T. ; Fogt, Ryan L. ; Folland, Chris ; Fonseca, C. ; Fossheim, M. ; Foster, Michael J. ; Fountain, Andrew ; Francis, S. D. ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Frey, Richard A. ; Frith, Stacey M. ; Froidevaux, Lucien ; Ganter, Catherine ; Garzoli, Silvia ; Gerland, S. ; Gobron, Nadine ; Goldenberg, Stanley B. ; Gomez, R. Sorbonne ; Goni, Gustavo J. ; Goto, A. ; Grooß, J. U. ; Gruber, Alexander ; Guard, Charles Chip ; Gugliemin, Mauro ; Gupta, S. K. ; Gutiérrez, J. M. ; Hagos, S. ; Hahn, Sebastian ; Haimberger, Leo ; Hakkarainen, J. ; Hall, Brad D. ; Halpert, Michael S. ; Hamlington, Benjamin D. ; Hanna, E.Y. ; Hansen, K. ; Hanssen-Bauer, I. ; Harris, Ian A ; Heidinger, Andrew K. ; Heikkilä, A. ; Heil, A. ; Heim, Richard R., Jr. ; Hendricks, S. ; Hernández, Marieta ; Hidalgo, Hugo G. ; Hilburn, Kyle ; Ho, Shu Peng Ben ; Holmes, R. Max ; Hu, Zeng Zhen ; Huang, Boyin ; Huelsing, Hannah K. ; Huffman, George J. ; Hughes, N.C. ; Hurst, Dale F. ; Ialongo, I. ; Ijampy, J. A. ; Ingvaldsen, R. B. ; Inness, Antje ; Isaksen, K. ; Ishii, Masayoshi ; Jevrejeva, Svetlana ; Jiménez, C. ; Jin, Xiangze ; Johannesen, E. ; John, Viju ; Borch-Johnsen, K. ; Johnson, Bryan ; Johnson, Gregory C. ; Jones, Philip D. ; Joseph, Annie C. ; Jumaux, Guillaume ; Kabidi, Khadija ; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Kato, Seiji ; Kazemi, A. ; Keller, Linda M. ; Kendon, Mike ; Kennedy, John J. ; Kerr, Kenneth ; Kholodov, A. L. ; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh ; Killick, Rachel ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Kim, S. J. ; Kimberlain, Todd B. ; Klotzbach, Philip J. ; Knaff, John A. ; Kobayashi, Shinya ; Kohler, J. ; Korhonen, Johanna ; Korshunova, Natalia N. ; Kovacs, K.M. ; Kramarova, Natalya ; Kratz, David P. ; Kruger, Andries ; Kruk, Michael C. ; Kudela, Raphael ; Kumar, Arun ; Lakatos, M. ; Lakkala, K. ; Lander, Mark A. ; Landsea, Chris W. ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Lantz, Kathleen ; Lazzara, Matthew A. ; Lemons, P. ; Leuliette, Eric ; L’Heureux, Michelle ; Lieser, Jan L. ; Lin, I. I. ; Liu, Hongxing ; Liu, Yinghui ; Locarnini, Ricardo ; Loeb, Norman G. ; Lo Monaco, Claire ; Long, Craig S. ; López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso ; Lorrey, Andrew M. ; Loyola, Diego ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Luo, Jing-Jia ; Luojus, K. ; Lydersen, C. ; Lyman, John M. ; Maberly, Stephen C. ; Maddux, Brent C. ; Malheiros Ramos, Andrea ; Malkova, G. V. ; Manney, G.L. ; Marcellin, Vernie ; Marchenko, Sergey ; Marengo, José A. ; Marra, John J. ; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz ; Martens, B. ; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney ; Massom, Robert A. ; Mata, Mauricio M. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; May, Linda ; Mayer, Michael ; Mazloff, Matthew ; McBride, Charlotte ; McCabe, M.F. ; McCarthy, M. ; McClelland, J.W. ; McGree, Simon ; McVicar, Tim R. ; Mears, Carl A. ; Meier, Walt ; Meinen, Christopher S. ; Mekonnen, A. ; Menéndez, Melisa ; Mengistu Tsidu, G. ; Menzel, W. Paul ; Merchant, Christopher J. ; Meredith, Michael P. ; Merrifield, Mark A. ; Metzl, N. ; Minnis, Patrick ; Miralles, Diego G. ; Mistelbauer, T. ; Mitchum, Gary T. ; Monselesan, Didier ; Monteiro, Pedro M S ; Montzka, Stephen A. ; Morice, Colin ; Mote, Thomas ; Mudryk, L. ; Mühle, Jens ; Mullan, A. Brett ; Nash, Eric R. ; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C. ; Nerem, Steven R. ; Newman, Paul A. ; Nieto, Juan José ; Noetzli, Jeannette ; O’Neel, S. ; Osborn, Tim J. ; Overland, James ; Oyunjargal, Lamjav ; Parinussa, Robert M. ; Park, E. Hyung ; Parker, David ; Parrington, M. ; Parsons, A. Rost ; Pasch, Richard J. ; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo ; Paterson, Andrew M. ; Paulik, Christoph ; Pearce, Petra R. ; Pelto, Mauri S. ; Peng, Liang ; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E. ; Perovich, Donald ; Petropavlovskikh, Irina ; Pezza, Alexandre B. ; Phillips, David ; Pinty, Bernard ; Pitts, Michael C. ; Pons, M. R. ; Porter, Avalon O. ; Primicerio, R. ; Proshutinsky, A. ; Quegan, Sean ; Quintana, Juan ; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh ; Rajeevan, Madhavan ; Randriamarolaza, L. ; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N. ; Reagan, James R. ; Reid, Phillip ; Reimer, Christoph ; Rémy, Samuel ; Renwick, James A. ; Revadekar, Jayashree V. ; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline ; Riffler, Michael ; Rimmer, Alon ; Rintoul, Steve ; Robinson, David A. ; Rodell, Matthew ; Rodríguez Solís, José L. ; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. ; Ronchail, Josyane ; Rosenlof, Karen H. ; Roth, Chris ; Rusak, James A. ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Sallée, Jean Bapiste ; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira ; Santee, Michelle L. ; Sawaengphokhai, P. ; Sayouri, Amal ; Scambos, Ted A. ; Schemm, Jae ; Schladow, S. Geoffrey ; Schmid, Claudia ; Schmid, Martin ; Schmidtko, Sunke ; Schreck, Carl J. ; Selkirk, H. B. ; Send, Uwe ; Sensoy, Serhat ; Setzer, Alberto ; Sharp, M. ; Shaw, Adrian ; Shi, Lei ; Shiklomanov, A. I. ; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I. ; Siegel, David A. ; Signorini, Sergio R. ; Sima, Fatou ; Simmons, Adrian J. ; Smeets, C. J.P.P. ; Smith, Sharon L. ; Spence, Jaqueline M. ; Srivastava, A. K. ; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr. ; Stammerjohn, Sharon ; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang ; Stella, José L. ; Stengel, Martin ; Stennett-Brown, Roxann ; Stephenson, Tannecia S. ; Strahan, Susan ; Streletskiy, D. A. ; Sun-Mack, Sunny ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Sweet, William ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Tamar, Gerard ; Tank, S.E. ; Taylor, Michael A. ; Tedesco, M. ; Teubner, Katrin ; Thoman, R. L. ; Thompson, Philip ; Thomson, L. ; Timmermans, M. L. ; Tirnanes, Joaquin A. ; Tobin, Skie ; Trachte, Katja ; Trainer, Vera L. ; Tretiakov, M. ; Trewin, Blair C. ; Trotman, Adrian R. ; Tschudi, M. ; van As, D. ; van de Wal, R.S.W. ; van der A, Ronald J. ; Van Der Schalie, Robin ; Van Der Schrier, Gerard ; Van Der Werf, Guido R. ; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J. ; Velicogna, I. ; Verburg, Piet ; Vigneswaran, Bala ; Vincent, Lucie A. ; Volkov, Denis ; Vose, Russell S. ; Wagner, Wolfgang ; Wåhlin, Anna ; Wahr, John ; Walsh, John ; Wang, Chunzai ; Wang, Junhong ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, M. ; Wang, Sheng-Hung ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watanabe, Shohei ; Weber, Mark ; Weller, Robert A. ; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. ; Whitewood, Robert ; Wijffels, Susan E. ; Wilber, Anne C. ; Wild, Jeanette D. ; Willett, Kate M. ; Williams, Michael J.M. ; Willie, Shem ; Wolken, Gabriel ; Wong, Takmeng ; Wood, E. F. ; Woolway, R. Iestyn ; Wouters, B. ; Xue, Yan ; Yamada, Ryuji ; Yim, So Young ; Yin, Xungang ; Young, Steven H. ; Yu, Lisan ; Zahid, H. ; Zambrano, Eduardo ; Zhang, Peiqun ; Zhao, Guanguo ; Zhou, Lin ; Ziemke, Jerry R. ; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth ; Gilbert, Kristin ; Maycock, Tom ; Osborne, Susan ; Sprain, Mara ; Veasey, Sara W. ; Ambrose, Barbara J. ; Griffin, Jessicca ; Misch, Deborah J. ; Riddle, Deborah B. ; Young, Teresa. / State of the climate in 2015. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2016 ; Vol. 97, No. 8. pp. S1-S275.
@article{c967bd3a41ec4c388f4bbc03b797cf7b,
title = "State of the climate in 2015",
abstract = "In 2015, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—all continued to reach new high levels. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the annual CO2 concentration increased by a record 3.1 ppm, exceeding 400 ppm for the first time on record. The 2015 global CO2 average neared this threshold, at 399.4 ppm. Additionally, one of the strongest El Ni{\~n}o events since at least 1950 developed in spring 2015 and continued to evolve through the year. The phenomenon was far reaching, impacting many regions across the globe and affecting most aspects of the climate system. Owing to the combination of El Ni{\~n}o and a long-term upward trend, Earth observed record warmth for the second consecutive year, with the 2015 annual global surface temperature surpassing the previous record by more than 0.1°C and exceeding the average for the mid- to late 19th century—commonly considered representative of preindustrial conditions—by more than 1°C for the first time. Above Earth’s surface, lower troposphere temperatures were near-record high. Across land surfaces, record to near-record warmth was reported across every inhabited continent. Twelve countries, including Russia and China, reported record high annual temperatures. In June, one of the most severe heat waves since 1980 affected Karachi, Pakistan, claiming over 1000 lives. On 27 October, Vredendal, South Africa, reached 48.4°C, a new global high temperature record for this month. In the Arctic, the 2015 land surface temperature was 1.2°C above the 1981–2010 average, tying 2007 and 2011 for the highest annual temperature and representing a 2.8°C increase since the record began in 1900. Increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 25 February 2015, the lowest maximum sea ice extent in the 37-year satellite record was observed, 7{\%} below the 1981–2010 average. Mean sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean during August in ice-free regions, representative of Arctic Ocean summer anomalies, ranged from ~0°C to 8°C above average. As a consequence of sea ice retreat and warming oceans, vast walrus herds in the Pacific Arctic are hauling out on land rather than on sea ice, raising concern about the energetics of females and young animals. Increasing temperatures in the Barents Sea are linked to a community-wide shift in fish populations: boreal communities are now farther north, and long-standing Arctic species have been almost pushed out of the area. Above average sea surface temperatures are not confined to the Arctic. Sea surface temperature for 2015 was record high at the global scale; however, the North Atlantic southeast of Greenland remained colder than average and colder than 2014. Global annual ocean heat content and mean sea level also reached new record highs. The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50{\%} of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012. Other aspects of the cryosphere were remarkable. Alpine glacier retreat continued, and preliminary data indicate that 2015 is the 36th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, late-spring snow cover extent continued its trend of decline, with June the second lowest in the 49-year satellite record. Below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, increasing by up to 0.66°C decade–1 since 2000. In the Antarctic, surface pressure and temperatures were lower than the 1981–2010 average for most of the year, consistent with the primarily positive southern annular mode, which saw a record high index value of +4.92 in February. Antarctic sea ice extent and area had large intra-annual variability, with a shift from record high levels in May to record low levels in August. Springtime ozone depletion resulted in one of the largest and most persistent Antarctic ozone holes observed since the 1990s. Closer to the equator, 101 named tropical storms were observed in 2015, well above the 1981–2010 average of 82. The eastern/central Pacific had 26 named storms, the most since 1992. The western north Pacific and north and south Indian Ocean basins also saw high activity. Globally, eight tropical cyclones reached the Saffir–Simpson Category 5 intensity level. Overlaying a general increase in the hydrologic cycle, the strong El Ni{\~n}o enhanced precipitation variability around the world. An above-normal rainy season led to major floods in Paraguay, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. In May, the United States recorded its all-time wettest month in its 121-year national record. Denmark and Norway reported their second and third wettest year on record, respectively, but globally soil moisture was below average, terrestrial groundwater storage was the lowest in the 14-year record, and areas in “severe” drought rose from 8{\%} in 2014 to 14{\%} in 2015. Drought conditions prevailed across many Caribbean island nations, Colombia, Venezuela, and northeast Brazil for most of the year. Several South Pacific countries also experienced drought. Lack of rainfall across Ethiopia led to its worst drought in decades and affected millions of people, while prolonged drought in South Africa severely affected agricultural production. Indian summer monsoon rainfall was just 86{\%} of average. Extremely dry conditions in Indonesia resulted in intense and widespread fires during August–November that produced abundant carbonaceous aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone. Overall, emissions from tropical Asian biomass burning in 2015 were almost three times the 2001–14 average.",
author = "Aaron-Morrison, {Arlene P.} and Ackerman, {Steven A.} and Adams, {Nicolaus G.} and Adler, {Robert F.} and Adelina Albanil and Alfaro, {Eric J.} and Rob Allan and Alves, {Lincoln M.} and Amador, {Jorge A.} and Andreassen, {L. M.} and A. Arendt and Juan Ar{\'e}valo and Arndt, {Derek S.} and Arzhanova, {N. M.} and Aschan, {M. M.} and C{\'e}sar Azorin-Molina and Viva Banzon and Bardin, {M. U.} and Jonathan Barichivich and Baringer, {Molly O.} and Sandra Barreira and Stephen Baxter and Juan Bazo and Andreas Becker and Bedka, {Kristopher M.} and Behrenfeld, {Michael J.} and Bell, {Gerald D.} and M. Belmont and Angela Benedetti and G. Bernhard and Paul Berrisford and Berry, {David I.} and Bettolli, {Mar{\'i}a L.} and Bhatt, {Uma S.} and Mario Bidegain and Bill, {Brian D.} and Sam Billheimer and Peter Bissolli and Blake, {Eric S.} and Jessica Blunden and Bosilovich, {Michael G.} and Olivier Boucher and Boudet, {Dagne R.} and Box, {Jason E.} and Tim Boyer and Braathen, {Geir O.} and Bromwich, {David H.} and R. Brown and Bulygina, {Olga N.} and D. Burgess and Blanca Calder{\'o}n and Camargo, {Suzana J.} and Campbell, {Jayaka D.} and J. Cappelen and Gualberto Carrasco and Carter, {Brendan R.} and Chambers, {Don P.} and Elise Chandler and Christiansen, {Hanne H.} and Christy, {John R.} and Daniel Chung and E.S. Chung and Kathy Cinque and Clem, {Kyle R.} and Coelho, {Caio A.} and J.G. Cogley and Melanie Coldewey-Egbers and Steve Colwell and Cooper, {Owen R.} and L. Copland and Cosca, {Catherine E.} and Cross, {Jessica N.} and Crotwell, {Molly J.} and Jake Crouch and Davis, {Sean M.} and {De Eyto}, Elvira and {De Jeu}, {Richard A.M.} and {De Laat}, Jos and Degasperi, {Curtis L.} and Doug Degenstein and M. Demircan and C. Derksen and Dale Destin and {Di Girolamo}, Larry and {Di Giuseppe}, F. and Diamond, {Howard J.} and Dlugokencky, {Ed J.} and Kathleen Dohan and Dokulil, {Martin T.} and Dolgov, {A. V.} and Dolman, {A. Johannes} and Domingues, {Catia M.} and Donat, {Markus G.} and Shenfu Dong and Dorigo, {Wouter A.} and Quay Dortch and Greg Doucette and Drozdov, {Dmitry S.} and Hugh Ducklow and Dunn, {Robert J.H.} and Dur{\'a}n-Quesada, {Ana M.} and Dutton, {Geoff S.} and A. Ebrahim and M. Elkharrim and Elkins, {James W.} and Espinoza, {Jhan C.} and Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc and Evans, {Thomas E.} and Famiglietti, {James S.} and S.A. Farrell and S. Fateh and Fausto, {Robert S.} and Nava Fedaeff and Feely, {Richard A.} and Z. Feng and Chris Fenimore and Xavier Fettweis and Fioletov, {Vitali E.} and Johannes Flemming and Fogarty, {Chris T.} and Fogt, {Ryan L.} and Chris Folland and C. Fonseca and M. Fossheim and Foster, {Michael J.} and Andrew Fountain and Francis, {S. D.} and Franz, {Bryan A.} and Frey, {Richard A.} and Frith, {Stacey M.} and Lucien Froidevaux and Catherine Ganter and Silvia Garzoli and S. Gerland and Nadine Gobron and Goldenberg, {Stanley B.} and Gomez, {R. Sorbonne} and Goni, {Gustavo J.} and A. Goto and Groo{\ss}, {J. U.} and Alexander Gruber and Guard, {Charles Chip} and Mauro Gugliemin and Gupta, {S. K.} and Guti{\'e}rrez, {J. M.} and S. Hagos and Sebastian Hahn and Leo Haimberger and J. Hakkarainen and Hall, {Brad D.} and Halpert, {Michael S.} and Hamlington, {Benjamin D.} and E.Y. Hanna and K. Hansen and I. Hanssen-Bauer and Harris, {Ian A} and Heidinger, {Andrew K.} and A. Heikkil{\"a} and A. Heil and Heim, {Richard R., Jr.} and S. Hendricks and Marieta Hern{\'a}ndez and Hidalgo, {Hugo G.} and Kyle Hilburn and Ho, {Shu Peng Ben} and Holmes, {R. Max} and Hu, {Zeng Zhen} and Boyin Huang and Huelsing, {Hannah K.} and Huffman, {George J.} and N.C. Hughes and Hurst, {Dale F.} and I. Ialongo and Ijampy, {J. A.} and Ingvaldsen, {R. B.} and Antje Inness and K. Isaksen and Masayoshi Ishii and Svetlana Jevrejeva and C. Jim{\'e}nez and Xiangze Jin and E. Johannesen and Viju John and K. Borch-Johnsen and Bryan Johnson and Johnson, {Gregory C.} and Jones, {Philip D.} and Joseph, {Annie C.} and Guillaume Jumaux and Khadija Kabidi and Kaiser, {Johannes W.} and Seiji Kato and A. Kazemi and Keller, {Linda M.} and Mike Kendon and Kennedy, {John J.} and Kenneth Kerr and Kholodov, {A. L.} and Mahbobeh Khoshkam and Rachel Killick and Hyungjun Kim and Kim, {S. J.} and Kimberlain, {Todd B.} and Klotzbach, {Philip J.} and Knaff, {John A.} and Shinya Kobayashi and J. Kohler and Johanna Korhonen and Korshunova, {Natalia N.} and K.M. Kovacs and Natalya Kramarova and Kratz, {David P.} and Andries Kruger and Kruk, {Michael C.} and Raphael Kudela and Arun Kumar and M. Lakatos and K. Lakkala and Lander, {Mark A.} and Landsea, {Chris W.} and Matthias Lankhorst and Kathleen Lantz and Lazzara, {Matthew A.} and P. Lemons and Eric Leuliette and Michelle L’Heureux and Lieser, {Jan L.} and Lin, {I. I.} and Hongxing Liu and Yinghui Liu and Ricardo Locarnini and Loeb, {Norman G.} and {Lo Monaco}, Claire and Long, {Craig S.} and {L{\'o}pez {\'A}lvarez}, {Luis Alfonso} and Lorrey, {Andrew M.} and Diego Loyola and Rick Lumpkin and Jing-Jia Luo and K. Luojus and C. Lydersen and Lyman, {John M.} and Maberly, {Stephen C.} and Maddux, {Brent C.} and {Malheiros Ramos}, Andrea and Malkova, {G. V.} and G.L. Manney and Vernie Marcellin and Sergey Marchenko and Marengo, {Jos{\'e} A.} and Marra, {John J.} and Wlodzimierz Marszelewski and B. Martens and Rodney Mart{\'i}nez-G{\"u}ingla and Massom, {Robert A.} and Mata, {Mauricio M.} and Mathis, {Jeremy T.} and Linda May and Michael Mayer and Matthew Mazloff and Charlotte McBride and M.F. McCabe and M. McCarthy and J.W. McClelland and Simon McGree and McVicar, {Tim R.} and Mears, {Carl A.} and Walt Meier and Meinen, {Christopher S.} and A. Mekonnen and Melisa Men{\'e}ndez and {Mengistu Tsidu}, G. and Menzel, {W. Paul} and Merchant, {Christopher J.} and Meredith, {Michael P.} and Merrifield, {Mark A.} and N. Metzl and Patrick Minnis and Miralles, {Diego G.} and T. Mistelbauer and Mitchum, {Gary T.} and Didier Monselesan and Monteiro, {Pedro M S} and Montzka, {Stephen A.} and Colin Morice and Thomas Mote and L. Mudryk and Jens M{\"u}hle and Mullan, {A. Brett} and Nash, {Eric R.} and Naveira-Garabato, {Alberto C.} and Nerem, {Steven R.} and Newman, {Paul A.} and Nieto, {Juan Jos{\'e}} and Jeannette Noetzli and S. O’Neel and Osborn, {Tim J.} and James Overland and Lamjav Oyunjargal and Parinussa, {Robert M.} and Park, {E. Hyung} and David Parker and M. Parrington and Parsons, {A. Rost} and Pasch, {Richard J.} and Reynaldo Pascual-Ram{\'i}rez and Paterson, {Andrew M.} and Christoph Paulik and Pearce, {Petra R.} and Pelto, {Mauri S.} and Liang Peng and Perkins-Kirkpatrick, {Sarah E.} and Donald Perovich and Irina Petropavlovskikh and Pezza, {Alexandre B.} and David Phillips and Bernard Pinty and Pitts, {Michael C.} and Pons, {M. R.} and Porter, {Avalon O.} and R. Primicerio and A. Proshutinsky and Sean Quegan and Juan Quintana and Fatemeh Rahimzadeh and Madhavan Rajeevan and L. Randriamarolaza and Razuvaev, {Vyacheslav N.} and Reagan, {James R.} and Phillip Reid and Christoph Reimer and Samuel R{\'e}my and Renwick, {James A.} and Revadekar, {Jayashree V.} and Jacqueline Richter-Menge and Michael Riffler and Alon Rimmer and Steve Rintoul and Robinson, {David A.} and Matthew Rodell and {Rodr{\'i}guez Sol{\'i}s}, {Jos{\'e} L.} and Romanovsky, {Vladimir E.} and Josyane Ronchail and Rosenlof, {Karen H.} and Chris Roth and Rusak, {James A.} and Sabine, {Christopher L.} and Sall{\'e}e, {Jean Bapiste} and Ahira S{\'a}nchez-Lugo and Santee, {Michelle L.} and P. Sawaengphokhai and Amal Sayouri and Scambos, {Ted A.} and Jae Schemm and Schladow, {S. Geoffrey} and Claudia Schmid and Martin Schmid and Sunke Schmidtko and Schreck, {Carl J.} and Selkirk, {H. B.} and Uwe Send and Serhat Sensoy and Alberto Setzer and M. Sharp and Adrian Shaw and Lei Shi and Shiklomanov, {A. I.} and Shiklomanov, {Nikolai I.} and Siegel, {David A.} and Signorini, {Sergio R.} and Fatou Sima and Simmons, {Adrian J.} and Smeets, {C. J.P.P.} and Smith, {Sharon L.} and Spence, {Jaqueline M.} and Srivastava, {A. K.} and Stackhouse, {Paul W., Jr.} and Sharon Stammerjohn and Wolfgang Steinbrecht and Stella, {Jos{\'e} L.} and Martin Stengel and Roxann Stennett-Brown and Stephenson, {Tannecia S.} and Susan Strahan and Streletskiy, {D. A.} and Sunny Sun-Mack and Sebastiaan Swart and William Sweet and Talley, {Lynne D.} and Gerard Tamar and S.E. Tank and Taylor, {Michael A.} and M. Tedesco and Katrin Teubner and Thoman, {R. L.} and Philip Thompson and L. Thomson and Timmermans, {M. L.} and Tirnanes, {Joaquin A.} and Skie Tobin and Katja Trachte and Trainer, {Vera L.} and M. Tretiakov and Trewin, {Blair C.} and Trotman, {Adrian R.} and M. Tschudi and {van As}, D. and {van de Wal}, R.S.W. and {van der A}, {Ronald J.} and {Van Der Schalie}, Robin and {Van Der Schrier}, Gerard and {Van Der Werf}, {Guido R.} and {Van Meerbeeck}, {Cedric J.} and I. Velicogna and Piet Verburg and Bala Vigneswaran and Vincent, {Lucie A.} and Denis Volkov and Vose, {Russell S.} and Wolfgang Wagner and Anna W{\aa}hlin and John Wahr and John Walsh and Chunzai Wang and Junhong Wang and Lei Wang and M. Wang and Sheng-Hung Wang and Rik Wanninkhof and Shohei Watanabe and Mark Weber and Weller, {Robert A.} and Weyhenmeyer, {Gesa A.} and Robert Whitewood and Wijffels, {Susan E.} and Wilber, {Anne C.} and Wild, {Jeanette D.} and Willett, {Kate M.} and Williams, {Michael J.M.} and Shem Willie and Gabriel Wolken and Takmeng Wong and Wood, {E. F.} and Woolway, {R. Iestyn} and B. Wouters and Yan Xue and Ryuji Yamada and Yim, {So Young} and Xungang Yin and Young, {Steven H.} and Lisan Yu and H. Zahid and Eduardo Zambrano and Peiqun Zhang and Guanguo Zhao and Lin Zhou and Ziemke, {Jerry R.} and Love-Brotak, {S. Elizabeth} and Kristin Gilbert and Tom Maycock and Susan Osborne and Mara Sprain and Veasey, {Sara W.} and Ambrose, {Barbara J.} and Jessicca Griffin and Misch, {Deborah J.} and Riddle, {Deborah B.} and Teresa Young",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
language = "English",
volume = "97",
pages = "S1--S275",
journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
issn = "0003-0007",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
number = "8",

}

Aaron-Morrison, AP, Ackerman, SA, Adams, NG, Adler, RF, Albanil, A, Alfaro, EJ, Allan, R, Alves, LM, Amador, JA, Andreassen, LM, Arendt, A, Arévalo, J, Arndt, DS, Arzhanova, NM, Aschan, MM, Azorin-Molina, C, Banzon, V, Bardin, MU, Barichivich, J, Baringer, MO, Barreira, S, Baxter, S, Bazo, J, Becker, A, Bedka, KM, Behrenfeld, MJ, Bell, GD, Belmont, M, Benedetti, A, Bernhard, G, Berrisford, P, Berry, DI, Bettolli, ML, Bhatt, US, Bidegain, M, Bill, BD, Billheimer, S, Bissolli, P, Blake, ES, Blunden, J, Bosilovich, MG, Boucher, O, Boudet, DR, Box, JE, Boyer, T, Braathen, GO, Bromwich, DH, Brown, R, Bulygina, ON, Burgess, D, Calderón, B, Camargo, SJ, Campbell, JD, Cappelen, J, Carrasco, G, Carter, BR, Chambers, DP, Chandler, E, Christiansen, HH, Christy, JR, Chung, D, Chung, ES, Cinque, K, Clem, KR, Coelho, CA, Cogley, JG, Coldewey-Egbers, M, Colwell, S, Cooper, OR, Copland, L, Cosca, CE, Cross, JN, Crotwell, MJ, Crouch, J, Davis, SM, De Eyto, E, De Jeu, RAM, De Laat, J, Degasperi, CL, Degenstein, D, Demircan, M, Derksen, C, Destin, D, Di Girolamo, L, Di Giuseppe, F, Diamond, HJ, Dlugokencky, EJ, Dohan, K, Dokulil, MT, Dolgov, AV, Dolman, AJ, Domingues, CM, Donat, MG, Dong, S, Dorigo, WA, Dortch, Q, Doucette, G, Drozdov, DS, Ducklow, H, Dunn, RJH, Durán-Quesada, AM, Dutton, GS, Ebrahim, A, Elkharrim, M, Elkins, JW, Espinoza, JC, Etienne-Leblanc, S, Evans, TE, Famiglietti, JS, Farrell, SA, Fateh, S, Fausto, RS, Fedaeff, N, Feely, RA, Feng, Z, Fenimore, C, Fettweis, X, Fioletov, VE, Flemming, J, Fogarty, CT, Fogt, RL, Folland, C, Fonseca, C, Fossheim, M, Foster, MJ, Fountain, A, Francis, SD, Franz, BA, Frey, RA, Frith, SM, Froidevaux, L, Ganter, C, Garzoli, S, Gerland, S, Gobron, N, Goldenberg, SB, Gomez, RS, Goni, GJ, Goto, A, Grooß, JU, Gruber, A, Guard, CC, Gugliemin, M, Gupta, SK, Gutiérrez, JM, Hagos, S, Hahn, S, Haimberger, L, Hakkarainen, J, Hall, BD, Halpert, MS, Hamlington, BD, Hanna, EY, Hansen, K, Hanssen-Bauer, I, Harris, IA, Heidinger, AK, Heikkilä, A, Heil, A, Heim, RRJ, Hendricks, S, Hernández, M, Hidalgo, HG, Hilburn, K, Ho, SPB, Holmes, RM, Hu, ZZ, Huang, B, Huelsing, HK, Huffman, GJ, Hughes, NC, Hurst, DF, Ialongo, I, Ijampy, JA, Ingvaldsen, RB, Inness, A, Isaksen, K, Ishii, M, Jevrejeva, S, Jiménez, C, Jin, X, Johannesen, E, John, V, Borch-Johnsen, K, Johnson, B, Johnson, GC, Jones, PD, Joseph, AC, Jumaux, G, Kabidi, K, Kaiser, JW, Kato, S, Kazemi, A, Keller, LM, Kendon, M, Kennedy, JJ, Kerr, K, Kholodov, AL, Khoshkam, M, Killick, R, Kim, H, Kim, SJ, Kimberlain, TB, Klotzbach, PJ, Knaff, JA, Kobayashi, S, Kohler, J, Korhonen, J, Korshunova, NN, Kovacs, KM, Kramarova, N, Kratz, DP, Kruger, A, Kruk, MC, Kudela, R, Kumar, A, Lakatos, M, Lakkala, K, Lander, MA, Landsea, CW, Lankhorst, M, Lantz, K, Lazzara, MA, Lemons, P, Leuliette, E, L’Heureux, M, Lieser, JL, Lin, II, Liu, H, Liu, Y, Locarnini, R, Loeb, NG, Lo Monaco, C, Long, CS, López Álvarez, LA, Lorrey, AM, Loyola, D, Lumpkin, R, Luo, J-J, Luojus, K, Lydersen, C, Lyman, JM, Maberly, SC, Maddux, BC, Malheiros Ramos, A, Malkova, GV, Manney, GL, Marcellin, V, Marchenko, S, Marengo, JA, Marra, JJ, Marszelewski, W, Martens, B, Martínez-Güingla, R, Massom, RA, Mata, MM, Mathis, JT, May, L, Mayer, M, Mazloff, M, McBride, C, McCabe, MF, McCarthy, M, McClelland, JW, McGree, S, McVicar, TR, Mears, CA, Meier, W, Meinen, CS, Mekonnen, A, Menéndez, M, Mengistu Tsidu, G, Menzel, WP, Merchant, CJ, Meredith, MP, Merrifield, MA, Metzl, N, Minnis, P, Miralles, DG, Mistelbauer, T, Mitchum, GT, Monselesan, D, Monteiro, PMS, Montzka, SA, Morice, C, Mote, T, Mudryk, L, Mühle, J, Mullan, AB, Nash, ER, Naveira-Garabato, AC, Nerem, SR, Newman, PA, Nieto, JJ, Noetzli, J, O’Neel, S, Osborn, TJ, Overland, J, Oyunjargal, L, Parinussa, RM, Park, EH, Parker, D, Parrington, M, Parsons, AR, Pasch, RJ, Pascual-Ramírez, R, Paterson, AM, Paulik, C, Pearce, PR, Pelto, MS, Peng, L, Perkins-Kirkpatrick, SE, Perovich, D, Petropavlovskikh, I, Pezza, AB, Phillips, D, Pinty, B, Pitts, MC, Pons, MR, Porter, AO, Primicerio, R, Proshutinsky, A, Quegan, S, Quintana, J, Rahimzadeh, F, Rajeevan, M, Randriamarolaza, L, Razuvaev, VN, Reagan, JR, Reid, P, Reimer, C, Rémy, S, Renwick, JA, Revadekar, JV, Richter-Menge, J, Riffler, M, Rimmer, A, Rintoul, S, Robinson, DA, Rodell, M, Rodríguez Solís, JL, Romanovsky, VE, Ronchail, J, Rosenlof, KH, Roth, C, Rusak, JA, Sabine, CL, Sallée, JB, Sánchez-Lugo, A, Santee, ML, Sawaengphokhai, P, Sayouri, A, Scambos, TA, Schemm, J, Schladow, SG, Schmid, C, Schmid, M, Schmidtko, S, Schreck, CJ, Selkirk, HB, Send, U, Sensoy, S, Setzer, A, Sharp, M, Shaw, A, Shi, L, Shiklomanov, AI, Shiklomanov, NI, Siegel, DA, Signorini, SR, Sima, F, Simmons, AJ, Smeets, CJPP, Smith, SL, Spence, JM, Srivastava, AK, Stackhouse, PWJ, Stammerjohn, S, Steinbrecht, W, Stella, JL, Stengel, M, Stennett-Brown, R, Stephenson, TS, Strahan, S, Streletskiy, DA, Sun-Mack, S, Swart, S, Sweet, W, Talley, LD, Tamar, G, Tank, SE, Taylor, MA, Tedesco, M, Teubner, K, Thoman, RL, Thompson, P, Thomson, L, Timmermans, ML, Tirnanes, JA, Tobin, S, Trachte, K, Trainer, VL, Tretiakov, M, Trewin, BC, Trotman, AR, Tschudi, M, van As, D, van de Wal, RSW, van der A, RJ, Van Der Schalie, R, Van Der Schrier, G, Van Der Werf, GR, Van Meerbeeck, CJ, Velicogna, I, Verburg, P, Vigneswaran, B, Vincent, LA, Volkov, D, Vose, RS, Wagner, W, Wåhlin, A, Wahr, J, Walsh, J, Wang, C, Wang, J, Wang, L, Wang, M, Wang, S-H, Wanninkhof, R, Watanabe, S, Weber, M, Weller, RA, Weyhenmeyer, GA, Whitewood, R, Wijffels, SE, Wilber, AC, Wild, JD, Willett, KM, Williams, MJM, Willie, S, Wolken, G, Wong, T, Wood, EF, Woolway, RI, Wouters, B, Xue, Y, Yamada, R, Yim, SY, Yin, X, Young, SH, Yu, L, Zahid, H, Zambrano, E, Zhang, P, Zhao, G, Zhou, L, Ziemke, JR, Love-Brotak, SE, Gilbert, K, Maycock, T, Osborne, S, Sprain, M, Veasey, SW, Ambrose, BJ, Griffin, J, Misch, DJ, Riddle, DB & Young, T 2016, 'State of the climate in 2015' Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. S1-S275. https://doi.org/10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

State of the climate in 2015. / Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Adler, Robert F.; Albanil, Adelina; Alfaro, Eric J.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Arendt, A.; Arévalo, Juan; Arndt, Derek S.; Arzhanova, N. M.; Aschan, M. M.; Azorin-Molina, César; Banzon, Viva; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Bazo, Juan; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bettolli, María L.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Bidegain, Mario; Bill, Brian D.; Billheimer, Sam; Bissolli, Peter; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Boudet, Dagne R.; Box, Jason E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderón, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrasco, Gualberto; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Chandler, Elise; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, Daniel; Chung, E.S.; Cinque, Kathy; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A.; Cogley, J.G.; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica N.; Crotwell, Molly J.; Crouch, Jake; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A.M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Destin, Dale; Di Girolamo, Larry; Di Giuseppe, F.; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolgov, A. V.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Dortch, Quay; Doucette, Greg; Drozdov, Dmitry S.; Ducklow, Hugh; Dunn, Robert J.H.; Durán-Quesada, Ana M.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Ebrahim, A.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl; Evans, Thomas E.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.A.; Fateh, S.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fedaeff, Nava; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, Xavier; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogarty, Chris T.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Fonseca, C.; Fossheim, M.; Foster, Michael J.; Fountain, Andrew; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Garzoli, Silvia; Gerland, S.; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Gomez, R. Sorbonne; Goni, Gustavo J.; Goto, A.; Grooß, J. U.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles Chip; Gugliemin, Mauro; Gupta, S. K.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hakkarainen, J.; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.Y.; Hansen, K.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.; Harris, Ian A; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heikkilä, A.; Heil, A.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Hendricks, S.; Hernández, Marieta; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hilburn, Kyle; Ho, Shu Peng Ben; Holmes, R. Max; Hu, Zeng Zhen; Huang, Boyin; Huelsing, Hannah K.; Huffman, George J.; Hughes, N.C.; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Ingvaldsen, R. B.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jiménez, C.; Jin, Xiangze; Johannesen, E.; John, Viju; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Philip D.; Joseph, Annie C.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kendon, Mike; Kennedy, John J.; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. J.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kobayashi, Shinya; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kovacs, K.M.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, David P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Kudela, Raphael; Kumar, Arun; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lander, Mark A.; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lantz, Kathleen; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Lemons, P.; Leuliette, Eric; L’Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I. I.; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Long, Craig S.; López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing-Jia; Luojus, K.; Lydersen, C.; Lyman, John M.; Maberly, Stephen C.; Maddux, Brent C.; Malheiros Ramos, Andrea; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.L.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marchenko, Sergey; Marengo, José A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; Mata, Mauricio M.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; McBride, Charlotte; McCabe, M.F.; McCarthy, M.; McClelland, J.W.; McGree, Simon; McVicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, Walt; Meinen, Christopher S.; Mekonnen, A.; Menéndez, Melisa; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Metzl, N.; Minnis, Patrick; Miralles, Diego G.; Mistelbauer, T.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Monselesan, Didier; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Montzka, Stephen A.; Morice, Colin; Mote, Thomas; Mudryk, L.; Mühle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Nash, Eric R.; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Nerem, Steven R.; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan José; Noetzli, Jeannette; O’Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, James; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Parinussa, Robert M.; Park, E. Hyung; Parker, David; Parrington, M.; Parsons, A. Rost; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Paulik, Christoph; Pearce, Petra R.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, Donald; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, David; Pinty, Bernard; Pitts, Michael C.; Pons, M. R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Primicerio, R.; Proshutinsky, A.; Quegan, Sean; Quintana, Juan; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Randriamarolaza, L.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Reagan, James R.; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Rémy, Samuel; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Riffler, Michael; Rimmer, Alon; Rintoul, Steve; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rodríguez Solís, José L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Sallée, Jean Bapiste; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schemm, Jae; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schreck, Carl J.; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Setzer, Alberto; Sharp, M.; Shaw, Adrian; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeets, C. J.P.P.; Smith, Sharon L.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, José L.; Stengel, Martin; Stennett-Brown, Roxann; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, D. A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Talley, Lynne D.; Tamar, Gerard; Tank, S.E.; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Teubner, Katrin; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, Philip; Thomson, L.; Timmermans, M. L.; Tirnanes, Joaquin A.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trainer, Vera L.; Tretiakov, M.; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; van As, D.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van der A, Ronald J.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vigneswaran, Bala; Vincent, Lucie A.; Volkov, Denis; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wåhlin, Anna; Wahr, John; Walsh, John; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Williams, Michael J.M.; Willie, Shem; Wolken, Gabriel; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yamada, Ryuji; Yim, So Young; Yin, Xungang; Young, Steven H.; Yu, Lisan; Zahid, H.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhou, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth; Gilbert, Kristin; Maycock, Tom; Osborne, Susan; Sprain, Mara; Veasey, Sara W.; Ambrose, Barbara J.; Griffin, Jessicca; Misch, Deborah J.; Riddle, Deborah B.; Young, Teresa.

In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 97, No. 8, 01.08.2016, p. S1-S275.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - State of the climate in 2015

AU - Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.

AU - Ackerman, Steven A.

AU - Adams, Nicolaus G.

AU - Adler, Robert F.

AU - Albanil, Adelina

AU - Alfaro, Eric J.

AU - Allan, Rob

AU - Alves, Lincoln M.

AU - Amador, Jorge A.

AU - Andreassen, L. M.

AU - Arendt, A.

AU - Arévalo, Juan

AU - Arndt, Derek S.

AU - Arzhanova, N. M.

AU - Aschan, M. M.

AU - Azorin-Molina, César

AU - Banzon, Viva

AU - Bardin, M. U.

AU - Barichivich, Jonathan

AU - Baringer, Molly O.

AU - Barreira, Sandra

AU - Baxter, Stephen

AU - Bazo, Juan

AU - Becker, Andreas

AU - Bedka, Kristopher M.

AU - Behrenfeld, Michael J.

AU - Bell, Gerald D.

AU - Belmont, M.

AU - Benedetti, Angela

AU - Bernhard, G.

AU - Berrisford, Paul

AU - Berry, David I.

AU - Bettolli, María L.

AU - Bhatt, Uma S.

AU - Bidegain, Mario

AU - Bill, Brian D.

AU - Billheimer, Sam

AU - Bissolli, Peter

AU - Blake, Eric S.

AU - Blunden, Jessica

AU - Bosilovich, Michael G.

AU - Boucher, Olivier

AU - Boudet, Dagne R.

AU - Box, Jason E.

AU - Boyer, Tim

AU - Braathen, Geir O.

AU - Bromwich, David H.

AU - Brown, R.

AU - Bulygina, Olga N.

AU - Burgess, D.

AU - Calderón, Blanca

AU - Camargo, Suzana J.

AU - Campbell, Jayaka D.

AU - Cappelen, J.

AU - Carrasco, Gualberto

AU - Carter, Brendan R.

AU - Chambers, Don P.

AU - Chandler, Elise

AU - Christiansen, Hanne H.

AU - Christy, John R.

AU - Chung, Daniel

AU - Chung, E.S.

AU - Cinque, Kathy

AU - Clem, Kyle R.

AU - Coelho, Caio A.

AU - Cogley, J.G.

AU - Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie

AU - Colwell, Steve

AU - Cooper, Owen R.

AU - Copland, L.

AU - Cosca, Catherine E.

AU - Cross, Jessica N.

AU - Crotwell, Molly J.

AU - Crouch, Jake

AU - Davis, Sean M.

AU - De Eyto, Elvira

AU - De Jeu, Richard A.M.

AU - De Laat, Jos

AU - Degasperi, Curtis L.

AU - Degenstein, Doug

AU - Demircan, M.

AU - Derksen, C.

AU - Destin, Dale

AU - Di Girolamo, Larry

AU - Di Giuseppe, F.

AU - Diamond, Howard J.

AU - Dlugokencky, Ed J.

AU - Dohan, Kathleen

AU - Dokulil, Martin T.

AU - Dolgov, A. V.

AU - Dolman, A. Johannes

AU - Domingues, Catia M.

AU - Donat, Markus G.

AU - Dong, Shenfu

AU - Dorigo, Wouter A.

AU - Dortch, Quay

AU - Doucette, Greg

AU - Drozdov, Dmitry S.

AU - Ducklow, Hugh

AU - Dunn, Robert J.H.

AU - Durán-Quesada, Ana M.

AU - Dutton, Geoff S.

AU - Ebrahim, A.

AU - Elkharrim, M.

AU - Elkins, James W.

AU - Espinoza, Jhan C.

AU - Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl

AU - Evans, Thomas E.

AU - Famiglietti, James S.

AU - Farrell, S.A.

AU - Fateh, S.

AU - Fausto, Robert S.

AU - Fedaeff, Nava

AU - Feely, Richard A.

AU - Feng, Z.

AU - Fenimore, Chris

AU - Fettweis, Xavier

AU - Fioletov, Vitali E.

AU - Flemming, Johannes

AU - Fogarty, Chris T.

AU - Fogt, Ryan L.

AU - Folland, Chris

AU - Fonseca, C.

AU - Fossheim, M.

AU - Foster, Michael J.

AU - Fountain, Andrew

AU - Francis, S. D.

AU - Franz, Bryan A.

AU - Frey, Richard A.

AU - Frith, Stacey M.

AU - Froidevaux, Lucien

AU - Ganter, Catherine

AU - Garzoli, Silvia

AU - Gerland, S.

AU - Gobron, Nadine

AU - Goldenberg, Stanley B.

AU - Gomez, R. Sorbonne

AU - Goni, Gustavo J.

AU - Goto, A.

AU - Grooß, J. U.

AU - Gruber, Alexander

AU - Guard, Charles Chip

AU - Gugliemin, Mauro

AU - Gupta, S. K.

AU - Gutiérrez, J. M.

AU - Hagos, S.

AU - Hahn, Sebastian

AU - Haimberger, Leo

AU - Hakkarainen, J.

AU - Hall, Brad D.

AU - Halpert, Michael S.

AU - Hamlington, Benjamin D.

AU - Hanna, E.Y.

AU - Hansen, K.

AU - Hanssen-Bauer, I.

AU - Harris, Ian A

AU - Heidinger, Andrew K.

AU - Heikkilä, A.

AU - Heil, A.

AU - Heim, Richard R., Jr.

AU - Hendricks, S.

AU - Hernández, Marieta

AU - Hidalgo, Hugo G.

AU - Hilburn, Kyle

AU - Ho, Shu Peng Ben

AU - Holmes, R. Max

AU - Hu, Zeng Zhen

AU - Huang, Boyin

AU - Huelsing, Hannah K.

AU - Huffman, George J.

AU - Hughes, N.C.

AU - Hurst, Dale F.

AU - Ialongo, I.

AU - Ijampy, J. A.

AU - Ingvaldsen, R. B.

AU - Inness, Antje

AU - Isaksen, K.

AU - Ishii, Masayoshi

AU - Jevrejeva, Svetlana

AU - Jiménez, C.

AU - Jin, Xiangze

AU - Johannesen, E.

AU - John, Viju

AU - Borch-Johnsen, K.

AU - Johnson, Bryan

AU - Johnson, Gregory C.

AU - Jones, Philip D.

AU - Joseph, Annie C.

AU - Jumaux, Guillaume

AU - Kabidi, Khadija

AU - Kaiser, Johannes W.

AU - Kato, Seiji

AU - Kazemi, A.

AU - Keller, Linda M.

AU - Kendon, Mike

AU - Kennedy, John J.

AU - Kerr, Kenneth

AU - Kholodov, A. L.

AU - Khoshkam, Mahbobeh

AU - Killick, Rachel

AU - Kim, Hyungjun

AU - Kim, S. J.

AU - Kimberlain, Todd B.

AU - Klotzbach, Philip J.

AU - Knaff, John A.

AU - Kobayashi, Shinya

AU - Kohler, J.

AU - Korhonen, Johanna

AU - Korshunova, Natalia N.

AU - Kovacs, K.M.

AU - Kramarova, Natalya

AU - Kratz, David P.

AU - Kruger, Andries

AU - Kruk, Michael C.

AU - Kudela, Raphael

AU - Kumar, Arun

AU - Lakatos, M.

AU - Lakkala, K.

AU - Lander, Mark A.

AU - Landsea, Chris W.

AU - Lankhorst, Matthias

AU - Lantz, Kathleen

AU - Lazzara, Matthew A.

AU - Lemons, P.

AU - Leuliette, Eric

AU - L’Heureux, Michelle

AU - Lieser, Jan L.

AU - Lin, I. I.

AU - Liu, Hongxing

AU - Liu, Yinghui

AU - Locarnini, Ricardo

AU - Loeb, Norman G.

AU - Lo Monaco, Claire

AU - Long, Craig S.

AU - López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso

AU - Lorrey, Andrew M.

AU - Loyola, Diego

AU - Lumpkin, Rick

AU - Luo, Jing-Jia

AU - Luojus, K.

AU - Lydersen, C.

AU - Lyman, John M.

AU - Maberly, Stephen C.

AU - Maddux, Brent C.

AU - Malheiros Ramos, Andrea

AU - Malkova, G. V.

AU - Manney, G.L.

AU - Marcellin, Vernie

AU - Marchenko, Sergey

AU - Marengo, José A.

AU - Marra, John J.

AU - Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz

AU - Martens, B.

AU - Martínez-Güingla, Rodney

AU - Massom, Robert A.

AU - Mata, Mauricio M.

AU - Mathis, Jeremy T.

AU - May, Linda

AU - Mayer, Michael

AU - Mazloff, Matthew

AU - McBride, Charlotte

AU - McCabe, M.F.

AU - McCarthy, M.

AU - McClelland, J.W.

AU - McGree, Simon

AU - McVicar, Tim R.

AU - Mears, Carl A.

AU - Meier, Walt

AU - Meinen, Christopher S.

AU - Mekonnen, A.

AU - Menéndez, Melisa

AU - Mengistu Tsidu, G.

AU - Menzel, W. Paul

AU - Merchant, Christopher J.

AU - Meredith, Michael P.

AU - Merrifield, Mark A.

AU - Metzl, N.

AU - Minnis, Patrick

AU - Miralles, Diego G.

AU - Mistelbauer, T.

AU - Mitchum, Gary T.

AU - Monselesan, Didier

AU - Monteiro, Pedro M S

AU - Montzka, Stephen A.

AU - Morice, Colin

AU - Mote, Thomas

AU - Mudryk, L.

AU - Mühle, Jens

AU - Mullan, A. Brett

AU - Nash, Eric R.

AU - Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.

AU - Nerem, Steven R.

AU - Newman, Paul A.

AU - Nieto, Juan José

AU - Noetzli, Jeannette

AU - O’Neel, S.

AU - Osborn, Tim J.

AU - Overland, James

AU - Oyunjargal, Lamjav

AU - Parinussa, Robert M.

AU - Park, E. Hyung

AU - Parker, David

AU - Parrington, M.

AU - Parsons, A. Rost

AU - Pasch, Richard J.

AU - Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo

AU - Paterson, Andrew M.

AU - Paulik, Christoph

AU - Pearce, Petra R.

AU - Pelto, Mauri S.

AU - Peng, Liang

AU - Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.

AU - Perovich, Donald

AU - Petropavlovskikh, Irina

AU - Pezza, Alexandre B.

AU - Phillips, David

AU - Pinty, Bernard

AU - Pitts, Michael C.

AU - Pons, M. R.

AU - Porter, Avalon O.

AU - Primicerio, R.

AU - Proshutinsky, A.

AU - Quegan, Sean

AU - Quintana, Juan

AU - Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh

AU - Rajeevan, Madhavan

AU - Randriamarolaza, L.

AU - Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.

AU - Reagan, James R.

AU - Reid, Phillip

AU - Reimer, Christoph

AU - Rémy, Samuel

AU - Renwick, James A.

AU - Revadekar, Jayashree V.

AU - Richter-Menge, Jacqueline

AU - Riffler, Michael

AU - Rimmer, Alon

AU - Rintoul, Steve

AU - Robinson, David A.

AU - Rodell, Matthew

AU - Rodríguez Solís, José L.

AU - Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

AU - Ronchail, Josyane

AU - Rosenlof, Karen H.

AU - Roth, Chris

AU - Rusak, James A.

AU - Sabine, Christopher L.

AU - Sallée, Jean Bapiste

AU - Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira

AU - Santee, Michelle L.

AU - Sawaengphokhai, P.

AU - Sayouri, Amal

AU - Scambos, Ted A.

AU - Schemm, Jae

AU - Schladow, S. Geoffrey

AU - Schmid, Claudia

AU - Schmid, Martin

AU - Schmidtko, Sunke

AU - Schreck, Carl J.

AU - Selkirk, H. B.

AU - Send, Uwe

AU - Sensoy, Serhat

AU - Setzer, Alberto

AU - Sharp, M.

AU - Shaw, Adrian

AU - Shi, Lei

AU - Shiklomanov, A. I.

AU - Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.

AU - Siegel, David A.

AU - Signorini, Sergio R.

AU - Sima, Fatou

AU - Simmons, Adrian J.

AU - Smeets, C. J.P.P.

AU - Smith, Sharon L.

AU - Spence, Jaqueline M.

AU - Srivastava, A. K.

AU - Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

AU - Stammerjohn, Sharon

AU - Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

AU - Stella, José L.

AU - Stengel, Martin

AU - Stennett-Brown, Roxann

AU - Stephenson, Tannecia S.

AU - Strahan, Susan

AU - Streletskiy, D. A.

AU - Sun-Mack, Sunny

AU - Swart, Sebastiaan

AU - Sweet, William

AU - Talley, Lynne D.

AU - Tamar, Gerard

AU - Tank, S.E.

AU - Taylor, Michael A.

AU - Tedesco, M.

AU - Teubner, Katrin

AU - Thoman, R. L.

AU - Thompson, Philip

AU - Thomson, L.

AU - Timmermans, M. L.

AU - Tirnanes, Joaquin A.

AU - Tobin, Skie

AU - Trachte, Katja

AU - Trainer, Vera L.

AU - Tretiakov, M.

AU - Trewin, Blair C.

AU - Trotman, Adrian R.

AU - Tschudi, M.

AU - van As, D.

AU - van de Wal, R.S.W.

AU - van der A, Ronald J.

AU - Van Der Schalie, Robin

AU - Van Der Schrier, Gerard

AU - Van Der Werf, Guido R.

AU - Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.

AU - Velicogna, I.

AU - Verburg, Piet

AU - Vigneswaran, Bala

AU - Vincent, Lucie A.

AU - Volkov, Denis

AU - Vose, Russell S.

AU - Wagner, Wolfgang

AU - Wåhlin, Anna

AU - Wahr, John

AU - Walsh, John

AU - Wang, Chunzai

AU - Wang, Junhong

AU - Wang, Lei

AU - Wang, M.

AU - Wang, Sheng-Hung

AU - Wanninkhof, Rik

AU - Watanabe, Shohei

AU - Weber, Mark

AU - Weller, Robert A.

AU - Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

AU - Whitewood, Robert

AU - Wijffels, Susan E.

AU - Wilber, Anne C.

AU - Wild, Jeanette D.

AU - Willett, Kate M.

AU - Williams, Michael J.M.

AU - Willie, Shem

AU - Wolken, Gabriel

AU - Wong, Takmeng

AU - Wood, E. F.

AU - Woolway, R. Iestyn

AU - Wouters, B.

AU - Xue, Yan

AU - Yamada, Ryuji

AU - Yim, So Young

AU - Yin, Xungang

AU - Young, Steven H.

AU - Yu, Lisan

AU - Zahid, H.

AU - Zambrano, Eduardo

AU - Zhang, Peiqun

AU - Zhao, Guanguo

AU - Zhou, Lin

AU - Ziemke, Jerry R.

AU - Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth

AU - Gilbert, Kristin

AU - Maycock, Tom

AU - Osborne, Susan

AU - Sprain, Mara

AU - Veasey, Sara W.

AU - Ambrose, Barbara J.

AU - Griffin, Jessicca

AU - Misch, Deborah J.

AU - Riddle, Deborah B.

AU - Young, Teresa

PY - 2016/8/1

Y1 - 2016/8/1

N2 - In 2015, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—all continued to reach new high levels. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the annual CO2 concentration increased by a record 3.1 ppm, exceeding 400 ppm for the first time on record. The 2015 global CO2 average neared this threshold, at 399.4 ppm. Additionally, one of the strongest El Niño events since at least 1950 developed in spring 2015 and continued to evolve through the year. The phenomenon was far reaching, impacting many regions across the globe and affecting most aspects of the climate system. Owing to the combination of El Niño and a long-term upward trend, Earth observed record warmth for the second consecutive year, with the 2015 annual global surface temperature surpassing the previous record by more than 0.1°C and exceeding the average for the mid- to late 19th century—commonly considered representative of preindustrial conditions—by more than 1°C for the first time. Above Earth’s surface, lower troposphere temperatures were near-record high. Across land surfaces, record to near-record warmth was reported across every inhabited continent. Twelve countries, including Russia and China, reported record high annual temperatures. In June, one of the most severe heat waves since 1980 affected Karachi, Pakistan, claiming over 1000 lives. On 27 October, Vredendal, South Africa, reached 48.4°C, a new global high temperature record for this month. In the Arctic, the 2015 land surface temperature was 1.2°C above the 1981–2010 average, tying 2007 and 2011 for the highest annual temperature and representing a 2.8°C increase since the record began in 1900. Increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 25 February 2015, the lowest maximum sea ice extent in the 37-year satellite record was observed, 7% below the 1981–2010 average. Mean sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean during August in ice-free regions, representative of Arctic Ocean summer anomalies, ranged from ~0°C to 8°C above average. As a consequence of sea ice retreat and warming oceans, vast walrus herds in the Pacific Arctic are hauling out on land rather than on sea ice, raising concern about the energetics of females and young animals. Increasing temperatures in the Barents Sea are linked to a community-wide shift in fish populations: boreal communities are now farther north, and long-standing Arctic species have been almost pushed out of the area. Above average sea surface temperatures are not confined to the Arctic. Sea surface temperature for 2015 was record high at the global scale; however, the North Atlantic southeast of Greenland remained colder than average and colder than 2014. Global annual ocean heat content and mean sea level also reached new record highs. The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50% of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012. Other aspects of the cryosphere were remarkable. Alpine glacier retreat continued, and preliminary data indicate that 2015 is the 36th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, late-spring snow cover extent continued its trend of decline, with June the second lowest in the 49-year satellite record. Below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, increasing by up to 0.66°C decade–1 since 2000. In the Antarctic, surface pressure and temperatures were lower than the 1981–2010 average for most of the year, consistent with the primarily positive southern annular mode, which saw a record high index value of +4.92 in February. Antarctic sea ice extent and area had large intra-annual variability, with a shift from record high levels in May to record low levels in August. Springtime ozone depletion resulted in one of the largest and most persistent Antarctic ozone holes observed since the 1990s. Closer to the equator, 101 named tropical storms were observed in 2015, well above the 1981–2010 average of 82. The eastern/central Pacific had 26 named storms, the most since 1992. The western north Pacific and north and south Indian Ocean basins also saw high activity. Globally, eight tropical cyclones reached the Saffir–Simpson Category 5 intensity level. Overlaying a general increase in the hydrologic cycle, the strong El Niño enhanced precipitation variability around the world. An above-normal rainy season led to major floods in Paraguay, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. In May, the United States recorded its all-time wettest month in its 121-year national record. Denmark and Norway reported their second and third wettest year on record, respectively, but globally soil moisture was below average, terrestrial groundwater storage was the lowest in the 14-year record, and areas in “severe” drought rose from 8% in 2014 to 14% in 2015. Drought conditions prevailed across many Caribbean island nations, Colombia, Venezuela, and northeast Brazil for most of the year. Several South Pacific countries also experienced drought. Lack of rainfall across Ethiopia led to its worst drought in decades and affected millions of people, while prolonged drought in South Africa severely affected agricultural production. Indian summer monsoon rainfall was just 86% of average. Extremely dry conditions in Indonesia resulted in intense and widespread fires during August–November that produced abundant carbonaceous aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone. Overall, emissions from tropical Asian biomass burning in 2015 were almost three times the 2001–14 average.

AB - In 2015, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—all continued to reach new high levels. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the annual CO2 concentration increased by a record 3.1 ppm, exceeding 400 ppm for the first time on record. The 2015 global CO2 average neared this threshold, at 399.4 ppm. Additionally, one of the strongest El Niño events since at least 1950 developed in spring 2015 and continued to evolve through the year. The phenomenon was far reaching, impacting many regions across the globe and affecting most aspects of the climate system. Owing to the combination of El Niño and a long-term upward trend, Earth observed record warmth for the second consecutive year, with the 2015 annual global surface temperature surpassing the previous record by more than 0.1°C and exceeding the average for the mid- to late 19th century—commonly considered representative of preindustrial conditions—by more than 1°C for the first time. Above Earth’s surface, lower troposphere temperatures were near-record high. Across land surfaces, record to near-record warmth was reported across every inhabited continent. Twelve countries, including Russia and China, reported record high annual temperatures. In June, one of the most severe heat waves since 1980 affected Karachi, Pakistan, claiming over 1000 lives. On 27 October, Vredendal, South Africa, reached 48.4°C, a new global high temperature record for this month. In the Arctic, the 2015 land surface temperature was 1.2°C above the 1981–2010 average, tying 2007 and 2011 for the highest annual temperature and representing a 2.8°C increase since the record began in 1900. Increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 25 February 2015, the lowest maximum sea ice extent in the 37-year satellite record was observed, 7% below the 1981–2010 average. Mean sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean during August in ice-free regions, representative of Arctic Ocean summer anomalies, ranged from ~0°C to 8°C above average. As a consequence of sea ice retreat and warming oceans, vast walrus herds in the Pacific Arctic are hauling out on land rather than on sea ice, raising concern about the energetics of females and young animals. Increasing temperatures in the Barents Sea are linked to a community-wide shift in fish populations: boreal communities are now farther north, and long-standing Arctic species have been almost pushed out of the area. Above average sea surface temperatures are not confined to the Arctic. Sea surface temperature for 2015 was record high at the global scale; however, the North Atlantic southeast of Greenland remained colder than average and colder than 2014. Global annual ocean heat content and mean sea level also reached new record highs. The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50% of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012. Other aspects of the cryosphere were remarkable. Alpine glacier retreat continued, and preliminary data indicate that 2015 is the 36th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, late-spring snow cover extent continued its trend of decline, with June the second lowest in the 49-year satellite record. Below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, increasing by up to 0.66°C decade–1 since 2000. In the Antarctic, surface pressure and temperatures were lower than the 1981–2010 average for most of the year, consistent with the primarily positive southern annular mode, which saw a record high index value of +4.92 in February. Antarctic sea ice extent and area had large intra-annual variability, with a shift from record high levels in May to record low levels in August. Springtime ozone depletion resulted in one of the largest and most persistent Antarctic ozone holes observed since the 1990s. Closer to the equator, 101 named tropical storms were observed in 2015, well above the 1981–2010 average of 82. The eastern/central Pacific had 26 named storms, the most since 1992. The western north Pacific and north and south Indian Ocean basins also saw high activity. Globally, eight tropical cyclones reached the Saffir–Simpson Category 5 intensity level. Overlaying a general increase in the hydrologic cycle, the strong El Niño enhanced precipitation variability around the world. An above-normal rainy season led to major floods in Paraguay, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. In May, the United States recorded its all-time wettest month in its 121-year national record. Denmark and Norway reported their second and third wettest year on record, respectively, but globally soil moisture was below average, terrestrial groundwater storage was the lowest in the 14-year record, and areas in “severe” drought rose from 8% in 2014 to 14% in 2015. Drought conditions prevailed across many Caribbean island nations, Colombia, Venezuela, and northeast Brazil for most of the year. Several South Pacific countries also experienced drought. Lack of rainfall across Ethiopia led to its worst drought in decades and affected millions of people, while prolonged drought in South Africa severely affected agricultural production. Indian summer monsoon rainfall was just 86% of average. Extremely dry conditions in Indonesia resulted in intense and widespread fires during August–November that produced abundant carbonaceous aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone. Overall, emissions from tropical Asian biomass burning in 2015 were almost three times the 2001–14 average.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84986201515&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84986201515&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

DO - 10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

M3 - Article

VL - 97

SP - S1-S275

JO - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

JF - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

SN - 0003-0007

IS - 8

ER -

Aaron-Morrison AP, Ackerman SA, Adams NG, Adler RF, Albanil A, Alfaro EJ et al. State of the climate in 2015. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2016 Aug 1;97(8):S1-S275. https://doi.org/10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1