State of the climate in 2017

R. Abernethy, Steven A. Ackerman, R. Adler, Adelina Albanil Encarnación, Laura S. Aldeco, Eric J. Alfaro, Vannia Aliaga-Nestares, Richard P. Allan, Rob Allan, Lincoln M. Alves, Jorge A. Amador, John Anderson, L. M. Andreassen, Anthony Argüez, C. Armitage, Derek S. Arndt, Grinia Avalos, César Azorin-Molina, Julián Báez, M. Yu Bardin & 481 others Jonathan Barichivich, Molly O. Baringer, Sandra Barreira, Stephen Baxter, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Kristopher M. Bedka, Carolina Behe, Gerald D. Bell, Nicolas Bellouin, M. Belmont, Angela Benedetti, G. H. Bernhard, Paul Berrisford, David I. Berry, U. S. Bhatt, Peter Bissolli, J. Bjerke, Eric S. Blake, Stephen Blenkinsop, Jessica Blunden, K. Bolmgren, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, Marilú Bouchon, J. E. Box, Tim Boyer, Geir O. Braathen, David H. Bromwich, R. Brown, S. Buehler, Olga N. Bulygina, D. Burgess, Blanca Calderón, Suzana J. Camargo, Ethan C. Campbell, Jayaka D. Campbell, J. Cappelen, Laura Carrea, Brendan R. Carter, Anabel Castro, Don P. Chambers, Lijing Cheng, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, E. S. Chung, Kyle R. Clem, Caio A.S. Coelho, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Steve Colwell, Owen R. Cooper, L. Copland, Carol Costanza, Curt Covey, Lawrence Coy, T. Cronin, Jake Crouch, Luis Cruzado, Raychelle Daniel, Sean M. Davis, S. G. Davletshin, Elvira De Eyto, Richard A.M. De Jeu, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Jos De Laat, Curtis L. De Gasperi, Doug Degenstein, P. Deline, Mesut Demircan, C. Derksen, Boris Dewitte, R. Dhurmea, Larry Di Girolamo, Howard J. Diamond, C. Dickerson, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Kathleen Dohan, Martin T. Dokulil, A. Johannes Dolman, Catia M. Domingues, Ricardo Domingues, Markus G. Donat, Shenfu Dong, Wouter A. Dorigo, D. S. Drozdov, Robert J.H. Dunn, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, C. Mark Eakin, M. El Kharrim, James W. Elkins, H. E. Epstein, Jhan C. Espinoza, James S. Famiglietti, J. Farmer, S. Farrell, P. Fauchald, R. S. Fausto, Richard A. Feely, Z. Feng, Chris Fenimore, X. Fettweis, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Ryan L. Fogt, Chris Folland, B. C. Forbes, Michael J. Foster, S. D. Francis, Bryan A. Franz, Richard A. Frey, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Catherine Ganter, Erick F. Geiger, S. Gerland, John Gilson, Nadine Gobron, Stanley B. Goldenberg, Andrea M. Gomez, Gustavo Goni, Jens Uwe Grooß, Alexander Gruber, Charles P. Guard, Mario Gugliemin, S. K. Gupta, Dimitri Gutiérrez, C. Haas, S. Hagos, Sebastian Hahn, Leo Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Michael S. Halpert, Benjamin D. Hamlington, E. Hanna, K. Hansen, L. Hanssen-Bauer, Ian Harris, Gail Hartfield, Andrew K. Heidinger, Richard R. Heim, S. Helfrich, D. L. Hemming, S. Hendricks, Rafael Hernández, Sosa Marieta Hernández, Scott F. Heron, C. Heuzé, Hugo G. Hidalgo, Shu Peng Ho, William R. Hobbs, T. Horstkotte, Boyin Huang, Daan Hubert, Céline Hueuzé, Dale F. Hurst, Iolanda Ialongo, M. M. Ibrahim, J. A. Ijampy, Antje Inness, Victor Isaac, K. Isaksen, Masayoshi Ishii, Stephanie J. Jacobs, Martin O. Jeffries, Svetlana Jevrejeva, C. Jiménez, Xiangze Jin, Viju John, William E. Johns, Bjørn Johnsen, Bryan Johnson, Gregory C. Johnson, Kenneth S. Johnson, Philip D. Jones, Guillaume Jumaux, Khadija Kabidi, J. W. Kaiser, Erdem M. Karaköylü, Seiji Kato, A. Kazemi, Linda M. Keller, John Kennedy, Kenneth Kerr, M. S. Khan, A. L. Kholodov, Mahbobeh Khoshkam, Rachel Killick, Hyungjun Kim, S. J. Kim, Philip J. Klotzbach, John A. Knaff, J. Kohler, Johanna Korhonen, Natalia N. Korshunova, Natalya Kramarova, D. P. Kratz, Andries Kruger, Michael C. Kruk, T. Krumpen, C. Ladd, Mónika Lakatos, Kaisa Lakkala, Mark A. Lander, Peter Landschützer, Chris W. Landsea, Matthias Lankhorst, Waldo Lavado-Casimiro, Matthew A. Lazzara, S. E. Lee, T. C. Lee, Eric Leuliette, Michelle L'Heureux, Tim Li, Jan L. Lieser, I. I. Lin, Carl A. Mears, Gang Liu, Bailing Li, Hongxing Liu, Ricardo Locarnini, Norman G. Loeb, Craig S. Long, Luis A. López, Andrew M. Lorrey, Diego Loyola, Rick Lumpkin, Jing Jia Luo, K. Luojus, S. Luthcke, M. Macias-Fauria, G. V. Malkova, Gloria L. Manney, Vernie Marcellin, S. S. Marchenko, José A. Marengo, Dora Marín, John J. Marra, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, B. Martens, A. Martin, Alejandra G. Martínez, Rodney Martínez-Güingla, Odalys Martínez-Sánchez, Benjamin L. Marsh, John M. Lyman, Robert A. Massom, Linda May, Michael Mayer, Matthew Mazloff, Charlotte McBride, M. F. McCabe, Mark McCarthy, W. Meier, Andrew J.S. Meijers, Ademe Mekonnen, G. Mengistu Tsidu, W. Paul Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Michael P. Meredith, Mark A. Merrifield, Ben Miller, Diego G. Miralles, Gary T. Mitchum, Sukarni Mitro, Ben Moat, Y. Mochizuki, Didier Monselesan, Stephen A. Montzka, Natalie Mora, Colin Morice, Kobi Mosquera-Vásquez, Awatif E. Mostafa, T. Mote, L. Mudryk, Jens Mühle, A. Brett Mullan, Rolf Müller, R. Myneni, Eric R. Nash, R. Steven Nerem, L. Newman, Paul A. Newman, John W. Nielsen-Gammon, Juan José Nieto, Jeannette Noetzli, Ben E. Noll, S. O'Neel, Tim J. Osborn, Emily Osborne, J. Overland, Lamjav Oyunjargal, T. Park, Richard J. Pasch, Reynaldo Pascual-Ramírez, Maria Asuncion Pastor Saavedra, Andrew M. Paterson, Christoph Paulik, Petra R. Pearce, Alexandre Peltier, Mauri S. Pelto, Liang Peng, Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Don Perovich, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Alexandre B. Pezza, C. Phillips, David Phillips, G. Phoenix, Bernard Pinty, J. Pinzon, S. Po-Chedley, C. Polashenski, Sarah G. Purkey, Nelson Quispe, Madhavan Rajeevan, C. Rakotoarimalala, Darren Rayner, M. K. Raynolds, James Reagan, Phillip Reid, Christoph Reimer, Samuel Rémy, Jayashree V. Revadekar, A. D. Richardson, Jacqueline Richter-Menge, R. Ricker, Alon Rimmer, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, Ernesto Rodriguez Camino, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, Josyane Ronchail, Karen H. Rosenlof, Benjamin Rösner, Chris Roth, David Mark Roth, James A. Rusak, T. Rutishäuser, Jean Bapiste Sallée, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, Michelle L. Santee, L. Sasgen, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. A. Sayad, Amal Sayouri, Ted A. Scambos, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, S. Geoffrey Schladow, Claudia Schmid, Martin Schmid, Carl J. Schreck, H. B. Selkirk, Uwe Send, Serhat Sensoy, M. Sharp, Lei Shi, Nikolai I. Shiklomanov, Svetlana V. Shimaraeva, David A. Siegel, Eugene Silow, Fatou Sima, Adrian J. Simmons, William J. Skirving, David A. Smeed, C. J.P.P. Smeets, Adam Smith, Sharon L. Smith, B. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Jacqueline M. Spence, Sandra Spillane, A. K. Srivastava, Paul W. Stackhouse, Sharon Stammerjohn, Diane M. Stanitski, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, José L. Stella, M. Stengel, Kimberly Stephenson, Tannecia S. Stephenson, Susan Strahan, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Alan E. Strong, Sunny Sun-Mack, Adrienne J. Sutton, Sebastiaan Swart, William Sweet, Kenneth S. Takahashi, Gerard Tamar, Michael A. Taylor, M. Tedesco, S. J. Thackeray, R. L. Thoman, Philip Thompson, L. Thomson, T. Thorsteinsson, Bertrand Timbal, M. L. Timmermans, Maxim A. TImofeyev, Kyle V. Tirak, Skie Tobin, H. Togawa, H. Tømmervik, Kleareti Tourpali, Katja Trachte, Blair C. Trewin, Joaquin A. Triñanes, Adrian R. Trotman, M. Tschudi, C. J. Tucker, Mari R. Tye, D. Van As, R. S.W. Van De Wal, J. A. Van Der Ronald, Robin Van Der Schalie, Gerard Van Der Schrier, Guido R. Van Der Werf, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, Christopher S. Velden, I. Velicogna, Piet Verburg, H. Vickers, Lucie A. Vincent, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Wolfgang Wagner, D. A. Walker, J. Walsh, Bin Wang, Junhong Wang, Lei Wang, M. Wang, Ray Wang, Sheng Hung Wang, Rik Wanninkhof, Shohei Watanabe, Mark Weber, M. Webster, Robert A. Weller, Toby K. Westberry, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Robert Whitewood, Matthew J. Widlansky, David N. Wiese, Susan E. Wijffels, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Kate M. Willett, Josh K. Willis, G. Wolken, Takmeng Wong, E. F. Wood, K. Wood, R. Iestyn Woolway, B. Wouters, Yan Xue, Xungang Yin, Huang Yoon, A. York, Lisan Yu, Eduardo Zambrano, Huai Min Zhang, Peiqun Zhang, Guanguo Zhao, Lin Zhao, Zhiwei Zhu, R. Ziel, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus G. Ziese, Jessicca Griffin, Gregory Hammer, S. Elizabeth Love-Brotak, Deborah J. Misch, Deborah B. Riddle, Mary Slagle, Mara Sprain, Sara W. Veasey, Tim R. McVicar

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset, since records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. Notably, it was the warmest non-El Niño year in the instrumental record. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower tropospheric temperature was also either second or third highest according to all datasets analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was about 0.2°C higher than the record cold temperature of 2016 according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, and Bulgaria, reported record high annual temperatures. Mexico broke its annual record for the fourth consecutive year. On 27 January, the temperature reached 43.4°C at Puerto Madryn, Argentina-the highest temperature recorded so far south (43°S) anywhere in the world. On 28 May in Turbat, western Pakistan, the high of 53.5°C tied Pakistan's all-time highest temperature and became the world-record highest temperature for May. In the Arctic, the 2017 land surface temperature was 1.6°C above the 1981-2010 average, the second highest since the record began in 1900, behind only 2016. The five highest annual Arctic temperatures have all occurred since 2007. Exceptionally high temperatures were observed in the permafrost across the Arctic, with record values reported in much of Alaska and northwestern Canada. In August, high sea surface temperature (SST) records were broken for the Chukchi Sea, with some regions as warm as +11°C, or 3° to 4°C warmer than the longterm mean (1982-present). According to paleoclimate studies, today's abnormally warm Arctic air and SSTs have not been observed in the last 2000 years. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 7 March, sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, covering 8% less area than the 1981-2010 average. The Arctic sea ice minimum on 13 September was the eighth lowest on record and covered 25% less area than the long-term mean. Preliminary data indicate that glaciers across the world lost mass for the 38th consecutive year on record; the declines are remarkably consistent from region to region. Cumulatively since 1980, this loss is equivalent to slicing 22 meters off the top of the average glacier. Antarctic sea ice extent remained below average for all of 2017, with record lows during the first four months. Over the continent, the austral summer seasonal melt extent and melt index were the second highest since 2005, mostly due to strong positive anomalies of air temperature over most of the West Antarctic coast. In contrast, the East Antarctic Plateau saw record low mean temperatures in March. The year was also distinguished by the second smallest Antarctic ozone hole observed since 1988. Across the global oceans, the overall long-term SST warming trend remained strong. Although SST cooled slightly from 2016 to 2017, the last three years produced the three highest annual values observed; these high anomalies have been associated with widespread coral bleaching. The most recent global coral bleaching lasted three full years, June 2014 to May 2017, and was the longest, most widespread, and almost certainly most destructive such event on record. Global integrals of 0-700-m and 0-2000-m ocean heat content reached record highs in 2017, and global mean sea level during the year became the highest annual average in the 25-year satellite altimetry record, rising to 77 mm above the 1993 average. In the tropics, 2017 saw 85 named tropical storms, slightly above the 1981-2010 average of 82. The North Atlantic basin was the only basin that featured an above-normal season, its seventh most active in the 164-year record. Three hurricanes in the basin were especially notable. Harvey produced record rainfall totals in areas of Texas and Louisiana, including a storm total of 1538.7 mm near Beaumont, Texas, which far exceeds the previous known U.S. tropical cyclone record of 1320.8 mm. Irma was the strongest tropical cyclone globally in 2017 and the strongest Atlantic hurricane outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean on record with maximum winds of 295 km h-1. Maria caused catastrophic destruction across the Caribbean Islands, including devastating wind damage and flooding across Puerto Rico. Elsewhere, the western North Pacific, South Indian, and Australian basins were all particularly quiet. Precipitation over global land areas in 2017 was clearly above the long-term average. Among noteworthy regional precipitation records in 2017, Russia reported its second wettest year on record (after 2013) and Norway experienced its sixth wettest year since records began in 1900. Across India, heavy rain and flood-related incidents during the monsoon season claimed around 800 lives. In August and September, above-normal precipitation triggered the most devastating floods in more than a decade in the Venezuelan states of Bolívar and Delta Amacuro. In Nigeria, heavy rain during August and September caused the Niger and Benue Rivers to overflow, bringing floods that displaced more than 100 000 people. Global fire activity was the lowest since at least 2003; however, high activity occurred in parts of North America, South America, and Europe, with an unusually long season in Spain and Portugal, which had their second and third driest years on record, respectively. Devastating fires impacted British Columbia, destroying 1.2 million hectares of timber, bush, and grassland, due in part to the region's driest summer on record. In the United States, an extreme western wildfire season burned over 4 million hectares; the total costs of $18 billion tripled the previous U.S. annual wildfire cost record set in 1991.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)Si-S310
Number of pages330
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Volume99
Issue number8 Special Supplement
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

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climate
sea ice
temperature
sea surface temperature
coral bleaching
tropical cyclone
wildfire
basin
hurricane
land surface
glacier
carbon dioxide
melt
anomaly
satellite altimetry
ocean
summer
global ocean
ice core
nitrous oxide

Bibliographical note

Published online: 14 september 2018

Cite this

Abernethy, R., Ackerman, S. A., Adler, R., Albanil Encarnación, A., Aldeco, L. S., Alfaro, E. J., ... McVicar, T. R. (2018). State of the climate in 2017. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(8 Special Supplement), Si-S310. https://doi.org/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
Abernethy, R. ; Ackerman, Steven A. ; Adler, R. ; Albanil Encarnación, Adelina ; Aldeco, Laura S. ; Alfaro, Eric J. ; Aliaga-Nestares, Vannia ; Allan, Richard P. ; Allan, Rob ; Alves, Lincoln M. ; Amador, Jorge A. ; Anderson, John ; Andreassen, L. M. ; Argüez, Anthony ; Armitage, C. ; Arndt, Derek S. ; Avalos, Grinia ; Azorin-Molina, César ; Báez, Julián ; Bardin, M. Yu ; Barichivich, Jonathan ; Baringer, Molly O. ; Barreira, Sandra ; Baxter, Stephen ; Beck, H. E. ; Becker, Andreas ; Bedka, Kristopher M. ; Behe, Carolina ; Bell, Gerald D. ; Bellouin, Nicolas ; Belmont, M. ; Benedetti, Angela ; Bernhard, G. H. ; Berrisford, Paul ; Berry, David I. ; Bhatt, U. S. ; Bissolli, Peter ; Bjerke, J. ; Blake, Eric S. ; Blenkinsop, Stephen ; Blunden, Jessica ; Bolmgren, K. ; Bosilovich, Michael G. ; Boucher, Olivier ; Bouchon, Marilú ; Box, J. E. ; Boyer, Tim ; Braathen, Geir O. ; Bromwich, David H. ; Brown, R. ; Buehler, S. ; Bulygina, Olga N. ; Burgess, D. ; Calderón, Blanca ; Camargo, Suzana J. ; Campbell, Ethan C. ; Campbell, Jayaka D. ; Cappelen, J. ; Carrea, Laura ; Carter, Brendan R. ; Castro, Anabel ; Chambers, Don P. ; Cheng, Lijing ; Christiansen, Hanne H. ; Christy, John R. ; Chung, E. S. ; Clem, Kyle R. ; Coelho, Caio A.S. ; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie ; Colwell, Steve ; Cooper, Owen R. ; Copland, L. ; Costanza, Carol ; Covey, Curt ; Coy, Lawrence ; Cronin, T. ; Crouch, Jake ; Cruzado, Luis ; Daniel, Raychelle ; Davis, Sean M. ; Davletshin, S. G. ; De Eyto, Elvira ; De Jeu, Richard A.M. ; De La Cour, Jacqueline L. ; De Laat, Jos ; De Gasperi, Curtis L. ; Degenstein, Doug ; Deline, P. ; Demircan, Mesut ; Derksen, C. ; Dewitte, Boris ; Dhurmea, R. ; Di Girolamo, Larry ; Diamond, Howard J. ; Dickerson, C. ; Dlugokencky, Ed J. ; Dohan, Kathleen ; Dokulil, Martin T. ; Dolman, A. Johannes ; Domingues, Catia M. ; Domingues, Ricardo ; Donat, Markus G. ; Dong, Shenfu ; Dorigo, Wouter A. ; Drozdov, D. S. ; Dunn, Robert J.H. ; Durre, Imke ; Dutton, Geoff S. ; Eakin, C. Mark ; El Kharrim, M. ; Elkins, James W. ; Epstein, H. E. ; Espinoza, Jhan C. ; Famiglietti, James S. ; Farmer, J. ; Farrell, S. ; Fauchald, P. ; Fausto, R. S. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Feng, Z. ; Fenimore, Chris ; Fettweis, X. ; Fioletov, Vitali E. ; Flemming, Johannes ; Fogt, Ryan L. ; Folland, Chris ; Forbes, B. C. ; Foster, Michael J. ; Francis, S. D. ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Frey, Richard A. ; Frith, Stacey M. ; Froidevaux, Lucien ; Ganter, Catherine ; Geiger, Erick F. ; Gerland, S. ; Gilson, John ; Gobron, Nadine ; Goldenberg, Stanley B. ; Gomez, Andrea M. ; Goni, Gustavo ; Grooß, Jens Uwe ; Gruber, Alexander ; Guard, Charles P. ; Gugliemin, Mario ; Gupta, S. K. ; Gutiérrez, Dimitri ; Haas, C. ; Hagos, S. ; Hahn, Sebastian ; Haimberger, Leo ; Hall, Brad D. ; Halpert, Michael S. ; Hamlington, Benjamin D. ; Hanna, E. ; Hansen, K. ; Hanssen-Bauer, L. ; Harris, Ian ; Hartfield, Gail ; Heidinger, Andrew K. ; Heim, Richard R. ; Helfrich, S. ; Hemming, D. L. ; Hendricks, S. ; Hernández, Rafael ; Hernández, Sosa Marieta ; Heron, Scott F. ; Heuzé, C. ; Hidalgo, Hugo G. ; Ho, Shu Peng ; Hobbs, William R. ; Horstkotte, T. ; Huang, Boyin ; Hubert, Daan ; Hueuzé, Céline ; Hurst, Dale F. ; Ialongo, Iolanda ; Ibrahim, M. M. ; Ijampy, J. A. ; Inness, Antje ; Isaac, Victor ; Isaksen, K. ; Ishii, Masayoshi ; Jacobs, Stephanie J. ; Jeffries, Martin O. ; Jevrejeva, Svetlana ; Jiménez, C. ; Jin, Xiangze ; John, Viju ; Johns, William E. ; Johnsen, Bjørn ; Johnson, Bryan ; Johnson, Gregory C. ; Johnson, Kenneth S. ; Jones, Philip D. ; Jumaux, Guillaume ; Kabidi, Khadija ; Kaiser, J. W. ; Karaköylü, Erdem M. ; Kato, Seiji ; Kazemi, A. ; Keller, Linda M. ; Kennedy, John ; Kerr, Kenneth ; Khan, M. S. ; Kholodov, A. L. ; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh ; Killick, Rachel ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Kim, S. J. ; Klotzbach, Philip J. ; Knaff, John A. ; Kohler, J. ; Korhonen, Johanna ; Korshunova, Natalia N. ; Kramarova, Natalya ; Kratz, D. P. ; Kruger, Andries ; Kruk, Michael C. ; Krumpen, T. ; Ladd, C. ; Lakatos, Mónika ; Lakkala, Kaisa ; Lander, Mark A. ; Landschützer, Peter ; Landsea, Chris W. ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo ; Lazzara, Matthew A. ; Lee, S. E. ; Lee, T. C. ; Leuliette, Eric ; L'Heureux, Michelle ; Li, Tim ; Lieser, Jan L. ; Lin, I. I. ; Mears, Carl A. ; Liu, Gang ; Li, Bailing ; Liu, Hongxing ; Locarnini, Ricardo ; Loeb, Norman G. ; Long, Craig S. ; López, Luis A. ; Lorrey, Andrew M. ; Loyola, Diego ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Luo, Jing Jia ; Luojus, K. ; Luthcke, S. ; Macias-Fauria, M. ; Malkova, G. V. ; Manney, Gloria L. ; Marcellin, Vernie ; Marchenko, S. S. ; Marengo, José A. ; Marín, Dora ; Marra, John J. ; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz ; Martens, B. ; Martin, A. ; Martínez, Alejandra G. ; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney ; Martínez-Sánchez, Odalys ; Marsh, Benjamin L. ; Lyman, John M. ; Massom, Robert A. ; May, Linda ; Mayer, Michael ; Mazloff, Matthew ; McBride, Charlotte ; McCabe, M. F. ; McCarthy, Mark ; Meier, W. ; Meijers, Andrew J.S. ; Mekonnen, Ademe ; Mengistu Tsidu, G. ; Menzel, W. Paul ; Merchant, Christopher J. ; Meredith, Michael P. ; Merrifield, Mark A. ; Miller, Ben ; Miralles, Diego G. ; Mitchum, Gary T. ; Mitro, Sukarni ; Moat, Ben ; Mochizuki, Y. ; Monselesan, Didier ; Montzka, Stephen A. ; Mora, Natalie ; Morice, Colin ; Mosquera-Vásquez, Kobi ; Mostafa, Awatif E. ; Mote, T. ; Mudryk, L. ; Mühle, Jens ; Mullan, A. Brett ; Müller, Rolf ; Myneni, R. ; Nash, Eric R. ; Nerem, R. Steven ; Newman, L. ; Newman, Paul A. ; Nielsen-Gammon, John W. ; Nieto, Juan José ; Noetzli, Jeannette ; Noll, Ben E. ; O'Neel, S. ; Osborn, Tim J. ; Osborne, Emily ; Overland, J. ; Oyunjargal, Lamjav ; Park, T. ; Pasch, Richard J. ; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo ; Pastor Saavedra, Maria Asuncion ; Paterson, Andrew M. ; Paulik, Christoph ; Pearce, Petra R. ; Peltier, Alexandre ; Pelto, Mauri S. ; Peng, Liang ; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E. ; Perovich, Don ; Petropavlovskikh, Irina ; Pezza, Alexandre B. ; Phillips, C. ; Phillips, David ; Phoenix, G. ; Pinty, Bernard ; Pinzon, J. ; Po-Chedley, S. ; Polashenski, C. ; Purkey, Sarah G. ; Quispe, Nelson ; Rajeevan, Madhavan ; Rakotoarimalala, C. ; Rayner, Darren ; Raynolds, M. K. ; Reagan, James ; Reid, Phillip ; Reimer, Christoph ; Rémy, Samuel ; Revadekar, Jayashree V. ; Richardson, A. D. ; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline ; Ricker, R. ; Rimmer, Alon ; Robinson, David A. ; Rodell, Matthew ; Rodriguez Camino, Ernesto ; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. ; Ronchail, Josyane ; Rosenlof, Karen H. ; Rösner, Benjamin ; Roth, Chris ; Roth, David Mark ; Rusak, James A. ; Rutishäuser, T. ; Sallée, Jean Bapiste ; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira ; Santee, Michelle L. ; Sasgen, L. ; Sawaengphokhai, P. ; Sayad, T. A. ; Sayouri, Amal ; Scambos, Ted A. ; Scanlon, T. ; Schenzinger, Verena ; Schladow, S. Geoffrey ; Schmid, Claudia ; Schmid, Martin ; Schreck, Carl J. ; Selkirk, H. B. ; Send, Uwe ; Sensoy, Serhat ; Sharp, M. ; Shi, Lei ; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I. ; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V. ; Siegel, David A. ; Silow, Eugene ; Sima, Fatou ; Simmons, Adrian J. ; Skirving, William J. ; Smeed, David A. ; Smeets, C. J.P.P. ; Smith, Adam ; Smith, Sharon L. ; Soden, B. ; Sofieva, Viktoria ; Sparks, T. H. ; Spence, Jacqueline M. ; Spillane, Sandra ; Srivastava, A. K. ; Stackhouse, Paul W. ; Stammerjohn, Sharon ; Stanitski, Diane M. ; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang ; Stella, José L. ; Stengel, M. ; Stephenson, Kimberly ; Stephenson, Tannecia S. ; Strahan, Susan ; Streletskiy, Dimitri A. ; Strong, Alan E. ; Sun-Mack, Sunny ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Sweet, William ; Takahashi, Kenneth S. ; Tamar, Gerard ; Taylor, Michael A. ; Tedesco, M. ; Thackeray, S. J. ; Thoman, R. L. ; Thompson, Philip ; Thomson, L. ; Thorsteinsson, T. ; Timbal, Bertrand ; Timmermans, M. L. ; TImofeyev, Maxim A. ; Tirak, Kyle V. ; Tobin, Skie ; Togawa, H. ; Tømmervik, H. ; Tourpali, Kleareti ; Trachte, Katja ; Trewin, Blair C. ; Triñanes, Joaquin A. ; Trotman, Adrian R. ; Tschudi, M. ; Tucker, C. J. ; Tye, Mari R. ; Van As, D. ; Van De Wal, R. S.W. ; Van Der Ronald, J. A. ; Van Der Schalie, Robin ; Van Der Schrier, Gerard ; Van Der Werf, Guido R. ; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J. ; Velden, Christopher S. ; Velicogna, I. ; Verburg, Piet ; Vickers, H. ; Vincent, Lucie A. ; Vömel, Holger ; Vose, Russell S. ; Wagner, Wolfgang ; Walker, D. A. ; Walsh, J. ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Junhong ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, M. ; Wang, Ray ; Wang, Sheng Hung ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watanabe, Shohei ; Weber, Mark ; Webster, M. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. ; Whitewood, Robert ; Widlansky, Matthew J. ; Wiese, David N. ; Wijffels, Susan E. ; Wilber, Anne C. ; Wild, Jeanette D. ; Willett, Kate M. ; Willis, Josh K. ; Wolken, G. ; Wong, Takmeng ; Wood, E. F. ; Wood, K. ; Woolway, R. Iestyn ; Wouters, B. ; Xue, Yan ; Yin, Xungang ; Yoon, Huang ; York, A. ; Yu, Lisan ; Zambrano, Eduardo ; Zhang, Huai Min ; Zhang, Peiqun ; Zhao, Guanguo ; Zhao, Lin ; Zhu, Zhiwei ; Ziel, R. ; Ziemke, Jerry R. ; Ziese, Markus G. ; Griffin, Jessicca ; Hammer, Gregory ; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth ; Misch, Deborah J. ; Riddle, Deborah B. ; Slagle, Mary ; Sprain, Mara ; Veasey, Sara W. ; McVicar, Tim R. / State of the climate in 2017. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2018 ; Vol. 99, No. 8 Special Supplement. pp. Si-S310.
@article{b1049581c08c4cd3a6fe5bc9b2604a47,
title = "State of the climate in 2017",
abstract = "In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Ni{\~n}a conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset, since records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. Notably, it was the warmest non-El Ni{\~n}o year in the instrumental record. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower tropospheric temperature was also either second or third highest according to all datasets analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was about 0.2°C higher than the record cold temperature of 2016 according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, and Bulgaria, reported record high annual temperatures. Mexico broke its annual record for the fourth consecutive year. On 27 January, the temperature reached 43.4°C at Puerto Madryn, Argentina-the highest temperature recorded so far south (43°S) anywhere in the world. On 28 May in Turbat, western Pakistan, the high of 53.5°C tied Pakistan's all-time highest temperature and became the world-record highest temperature for May. In the Arctic, the 2017 land surface temperature was 1.6°C above the 1981-2010 average, the second highest since the record began in 1900, behind only 2016. The five highest annual Arctic temperatures have all occurred since 2007. Exceptionally high temperatures were observed in the permafrost across the Arctic, with record values reported in much of Alaska and northwestern Canada. In August, high sea surface temperature (SST) records were broken for the Chukchi Sea, with some regions as warm as +11°C, or 3° to 4°C warmer than the longterm mean (1982-present). According to paleoclimate studies, today's abnormally warm Arctic air and SSTs have not been observed in the last 2000 years. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 7 March, sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, covering 8{\%} less area than the 1981-2010 average. The Arctic sea ice minimum on 13 September was the eighth lowest on record and covered 25{\%} less area than the long-term mean. Preliminary data indicate that glaciers across the world lost mass for the 38th consecutive year on record; the declines are remarkably consistent from region to region. Cumulatively since 1980, this loss is equivalent to slicing 22 meters off the top of the average glacier. Antarctic sea ice extent remained below average for all of 2017, with record lows during the first four months. Over the continent, the austral summer seasonal melt extent and melt index were the second highest since 2005, mostly due to strong positive anomalies of air temperature over most of the West Antarctic coast. In contrast, the East Antarctic Plateau saw record low mean temperatures in March. The year was also distinguished by the second smallest Antarctic ozone hole observed since 1988. Across the global oceans, the overall long-term SST warming trend remained strong. Although SST cooled slightly from 2016 to 2017, the last three years produced the three highest annual values observed; these high anomalies have been associated with widespread coral bleaching. The most recent global coral bleaching lasted three full years, June 2014 to May 2017, and was the longest, most widespread, and almost certainly most destructive such event on record. Global integrals of 0-700-m and 0-2000-m ocean heat content reached record highs in 2017, and global mean sea level during the year became the highest annual average in the 25-year satellite altimetry record, rising to 77 mm above the 1993 average. In the tropics, 2017 saw 85 named tropical storms, slightly above the 1981-2010 average of 82. The North Atlantic basin was the only basin that featured an above-normal season, its seventh most active in the 164-year record. Three hurricanes in the basin were especially notable. Harvey produced record rainfall totals in areas of Texas and Louisiana, including a storm total of 1538.7 mm near Beaumont, Texas, which far exceeds the previous known U.S. tropical cyclone record of 1320.8 mm. Irma was the strongest tropical cyclone globally in 2017 and the strongest Atlantic hurricane outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean on record with maximum winds of 295 km h-1. Maria caused catastrophic destruction across the Caribbean Islands, including devastating wind damage and flooding across Puerto Rico. Elsewhere, the western North Pacific, South Indian, and Australian basins were all particularly quiet. Precipitation over global land areas in 2017 was clearly above the long-term average. Among noteworthy regional precipitation records in 2017, Russia reported its second wettest year on record (after 2013) and Norway experienced its sixth wettest year since records began in 1900. Across India, heavy rain and flood-related incidents during the monsoon season claimed around 800 lives. In August and September, above-normal precipitation triggered the most devastating floods in more than a decade in the Venezuelan states of Bol{\'i}var and Delta Amacuro. In Nigeria, heavy rain during August and September caused the Niger and Benue Rivers to overflow, bringing floods that displaced more than 100 000 people. Global fire activity was the lowest since at least 2003; however, high activity occurred in parts of North America, South America, and Europe, with an unusually long season in Spain and Portugal, which had their second and third driest years on record, respectively. Devastating fires impacted British Columbia, destroying 1.2 million hectares of timber, bush, and grassland, due in part to the region's driest summer on record. In the United States, an extreme western wildfire season burned over 4 million hectares; the total costs of $18 billion tripled the previous U.S. annual wildfire cost record set in 1991.",
author = "R. Abernethy and Ackerman, {Steven A.} and R. Adler and {Albanil Encarnaci{\'o}n}, Adelina and Aldeco, {Laura S.} and Alfaro, {Eric J.} and Vannia Aliaga-Nestares and Allan, {Richard P.} and Rob Allan and Alves, {Lincoln M.} and Amador, {Jorge A.} and John Anderson and Andreassen, {L. M.} and Anthony Arg{\"u}ez and C. Armitage and Arndt, {Derek S.} and Grinia Avalos and C{\'e}sar Azorin-Molina and Juli{\'a}n B{\'a}ez and Bardin, {M. Yu} and Jonathan Barichivich and Baringer, {Molly O.} and Sandra Barreira and Stephen Baxter and Beck, {H. E.} and Andreas Becker and Bedka, {Kristopher M.} and Carolina Behe and Bell, {Gerald D.} and Nicolas Bellouin and M. Belmont and Angela Benedetti and Bernhard, {G. H.} and Paul Berrisford and Berry, {David I.} and Bhatt, {U. S.} and Peter Bissolli and J. Bjerke and Blake, {Eric S.} and Stephen Blenkinsop and Jessica Blunden and K. Bolmgren and Bosilovich, {Michael G.} and Olivier Boucher and Maril{\'u} Bouchon and Box, {J. E.} and Tim Boyer and Braathen, {Geir O.} and Bromwich, {David H.} and R. Brown and S. Buehler and Bulygina, {Olga N.} and D. Burgess and Blanca Calder{\'o}n and Camargo, {Suzana J.} and Campbell, {Ethan C.} and Campbell, {Jayaka D.} and J. Cappelen and Laura Carrea and Carter, {Brendan R.} and Anabel Castro and Chambers, {Don P.} and Lijing Cheng and Christiansen, {Hanne H.} and Christy, {John R.} and Chung, {E. S.} and Clem, {Kyle R.} and Coelho, {Caio A.S.} and Melanie Coldewey-Egbers and Steve Colwell and Cooper, {Owen R.} and L. Copland and Carol Costanza and Curt Covey and Lawrence Coy and T. Cronin and Jake Crouch and Luis Cruzado and Raychelle Daniel and Davis, {Sean M.} and Davletshin, {S. G.} and {De Eyto}, Elvira and {De Jeu}, {Richard A.M.} and {De La Cour}, {Jacqueline L.} and {De Laat}, Jos and {De Gasperi}, {Curtis L.} and Doug Degenstein and P. Deline and Mesut Demircan and C. Derksen and Boris Dewitte and R. Dhurmea and {Di Girolamo}, Larry and Diamond, {Howard J.} and C. Dickerson and Dlugokencky, {Ed J.} and Kathleen Dohan and Dokulil, {Martin T.} and Dolman, {A. Johannes} and Domingues, {Catia M.} and Ricardo Domingues and Donat, {Markus G.} and Shenfu Dong and Dorigo, {Wouter A.} and Drozdov, {D. S.} and Dunn, {Robert J.H.} and Imke Durre and Dutton, {Geoff S.} and Eakin, {C. Mark} and {El Kharrim}, M. and Elkins, {James W.} and Epstein, {H. E.} and Espinoza, {Jhan C.} and Famiglietti, {James S.} and J. Farmer and S. Farrell and P. Fauchald and Fausto, {R. S.} and Feely, {Richard A.} and Z. Feng and Chris Fenimore and X. Fettweis and Fioletov, {Vitali E.} and Johannes Flemming and Fogt, {Ryan L.} and Chris Folland and Forbes, {B. C.} and Foster, {Michael J.} and Francis, {S. D.} and Franz, {Bryan A.} and Frey, {Richard A.} and Frith, {Stacey M.} and Lucien Froidevaux and Catherine Ganter and Geiger, {Erick F.} and S. Gerland and John Gilson and Nadine Gobron and Goldenberg, {Stanley B.} and Gomez, {Andrea M.} and Gustavo Goni and Groo{\ss}, {Jens Uwe} and Alexander Gruber and Guard, {Charles P.} and Mario Gugliemin and Gupta, {S. K.} and Dimitri Guti{\'e}rrez and C. Haas and S. Hagos and Sebastian Hahn and Leo Haimberger and Hall, {Brad D.} and Halpert, {Michael S.} and Hamlington, {Benjamin D.} and E. Hanna and K. Hansen and L. Hanssen-Bauer and Ian Harris and Gail Hartfield and Heidinger, {Andrew K.} and Heim, {Richard R.} and S. Helfrich and Hemming, {D. L.} and S. Hendricks and Rafael Hern{\'a}ndez and Hern{\'a}ndez, {Sosa Marieta} and Heron, {Scott F.} and C. Heuz{\'e} and Hidalgo, {Hugo G.} and Ho, {Shu Peng} and Hobbs, {William R.} and T. Horstkotte and Boyin Huang and Daan Hubert and C{\'e}line Hueuz{\'e} and Hurst, {Dale F.} and Iolanda Ialongo and Ibrahim, {M. M.} and Ijampy, {J. A.} and Antje Inness and Victor Isaac and K. Isaksen and Masayoshi Ishii and Jacobs, {Stephanie J.} and Jeffries, {Martin O.} and Svetlana Jevrejeva and C. Jim{\'e}nez and Xiangze Jin and Viju John and Johns, {William E.} and Bj{\o}rn Johnsen and Bryan Johnson and Johnson, {Gregory C.} and Johnson, {Kenneth S.} and Jones, {Philip D.} and Guillaume Jumaux and Khadija Kabidi and Kaiser, {J. W.} and Karak{\"o}yl{\"u}, {Erdem M.} and Seiji Kato and A. Kazemi and Keller, {Linda M.} and John Kennedy and Kenneth Kerr and Khan, {M. S.} and Kholodov, {A. L.} and Mahbobeh Khoshkam and Rachel Killick and Hyungjun Kim and Kim, {S. J.} and Klotzbach, {Philip J.} and Knaff, {John A.} and J. Kohler and Johanna Korhonen and Korshunova, {Natalia N.} and Natalya Kramarova and Kratz, {D. P.} and Andries Kruger and Kruk, {Michael C.} and T. Krumpen and C. Ladd and M{\'o}nika Lakatos and Kaisa Lakkala and Lander, {Mark A.} and Peter Landsch{\"u}tzer and Landsea, {Chris W.} and Matthias Lankhorst and Waldo Lavado-Casimiro and Lazzara, {Matthew A.} and Lee, {S. E.} and Lee, {T. C.} and Eric Leuliette and Michelle L'Heureux and Tim Li and Lieser, {Jan L.} and Lin, {I. I.} and Mears, {Carl A.} and Gang Liu and Bailing Li and Hongxing Liu and Ricardo Locarnini and Loeb, {Norman G.} and Long, {Craig S.} and L{\'o}pez, {Luis A.} and Lorrey, {Andrew M.} and Diego Loyola and Rick Lumpkin and Luo, {Jing Jia} and K. Luojus and S. Luthcke and M. Macias-Fauria and Malkova, {G. V.} and Manney, {Gloria L.} and Vernie Marcellin and Marchenko, {S. S.} and Marengo, {Jos{\'e} A.} and Dora Mar{\'i}n and Marra, {John J.} and Wlodzimierz Marszelewski and B. Martens and A. Martin and Mart{\'i}nez, {Alejandra G.} and Rodney Mart{\'i}nez-G{\"u}ingla and Odalys Mart{\'i}nez-S{\'a}nchez and Marsh, {Benjamin L.} and Lyman, {John M.} and Massom, {Robert A.} and Linda May and Michael Mayer and Matthew Mazloff and Charlotte McBride and McCabe, {M. F.} and Mark McCarthy and W. Meier and Meijers, {Andrew J.S.} and Ademe Mekonnen and {Mengistu Tsidu}, G. and Menzel, {W. Paul} and Merchant, {Christopher J.} and Meredith, {Michael P.} and Merrifield, {Mark A.} and Ben Miller and Miralles, {Diego G.} and Mitchum, {Gary T.} and Sukarni Mitro and Ben Moat and Y. Mochizuki and Didier Monselesan and Montzka, {Stephen A.} and Natalie Mora and Colin Morice and Kobi Mosquera-V{\'a}squez and Mostafa, {Awatif E.} and T. Mote and L. Mudryk and Jens M{\"u}hle and Mullan, {A. Brett} and Rolf M{\"u}ller and R. Myneni and Nash, {Eric R.} and Nerem, {R. Steven} and L. Newman and Newman, {Paul A.} and Nielsen-Gammon, {John W.} and Nieto, {Juan Jos{\'e}} and Jeannette Noetzli and Noll, {Ben E.} and S. O'Neel and Osborn, {Tim J.} and Emily Osborne and J. Overland and Lamjav Oyunjargal and T. Park and Pasch, {Richard J.} and Reynaldo Pascual-Ram{\'i}rez and {Pastor Saavedra}, {Maria Asuncion} and Paterson, {Andrew M.} and Christoph Paulik and Pearce, {Petra R.} and Alexandre Peltier and Pelto, {Mauri S.} and Liang Peng and Perkins-Kirkpatrick, {Sarah E.} and Don Perovich and Irina Petropavlovskikh and Pezza, {Alexandre B.} and C. Phillips and David Phillips and G. Phoenix and Bernard Pinty and J. Pinzon and S. Po-Chedley and C. Polashenski and Purkey, {Sarah G.} and Nelson Quispe and Madhavan Rajeevan and C. Rakotoarimalala and Darren Rayner and Raynolds, {M. K.} and James Reagan and Phillip Reid and Christoph Reimer and Samuel R{\'e}my and Revadekar, {Jayashree V.} and Richardson, {A. D.} and Jacqueline Richter-Menge and R. Ricker and Alon Rimmer and Robinson, {David A.} and Matthew Rodell and {Rodriguez Camino}, Ernesto and Romanovsky, {Vladimir E.} and Josyane Ronchail and Rosenlof, {Karen H.} and Benjamin R{\"o}sner and Chris Roth and Roth, {David Mark} and Rusak, {James A.} and T. Rutish{\"a}user and Sall{\'e}e, {Jean Bapiste} and Ahira S{\'a}nchez-Lugo and Santee, {Michelle L.} and L. Sasgen and P. Sawaengphokhai and Sayad, {T. A.} and Amal Sayouri and Scambos, {Ted A.} and T. Scanlon and Verena Schenzinger and Schladow, {S. Geoffrey} and Claudia Schmid and Martin Schmid and Schreck, {Carl J.} and Selkirk, {H. B.} and Uwe Send and Serhat Sensoy and M. Sharp and Lei Shi and Shiklomanov, {Nikolai I.} and Shimaraeva, {Svetlana V.} and Siegel, {David A.} and Eugene Silow and Fatou Sima and Simmons, {Adrian J.} and Skirving, {William J.} and Smeed, {David A.} and Smeets, {C. J.P.P.} and Adam Smith and Smith, {Sharon L.} and B. Soden and Viktoria Sofieva and Sparks, {T. H.} and Spence, {Jacqueline M.} and Sandra Spillane and Srivastava, {A. K.} and Stackhouse, {Paul W.} and Sharon Stammerjohn and Stanitski, {Diane M.} and Wolfgang Steinbrecht and Stella, {Jos{\'e} L.} and M. Stengel and Kimberly Stephenson and Stephenson, {Tannecia S.} and Susan Strahan and Streletskiy, {Dimitri A.} and Strong, {Alan E.} and Sunny Sun-Mack and Sutton, {Adrienne J.} and Sebastiaan Swart and William Sweet and Takahashi, {Kenneth S.} and Gerard Tamar and Taylor, {Michael A.} and M. Tedesco and Thackeray, {S. J.} and Thoman, {R. L.} and Philip Thompson and L. Thomson and T. Thorsteinsson and Bertrand Timbal and Timmermans, {M. L.} and TImofeyev, {Maxim A.} and Tirak, {Kyle V.} and Skie Tobin and H. Togawa and H. T{\o}mmervik and Kleareti Tourpali and Katja Trachte and Trewin, {Blair C.} and Tri{\~n}anes, {Joaquin A.} and Trotman, {Adrian R.} and M. Tschudi and Tucker, {C. J.} and Tye, {Mari R.} and {Van As}, D. and {Van De Wal}, {R. S.W.} and {Van Der Ronald}, {J. A.} and {Van Der Schalie}, Robin and {Van Der Schrier}, Gerard and {Van Der Werf}, {Guido R.} and {Van Meerbeeck}, {Cedric J.} and Velden, {Christopher S.} and I. Velicogna and Piet Verburg and H. Vickers and Vincent, {Lucie A.} and Holger V{\"o}mel and Vose, {Russell S.} and Wolfgang Wagner and Walker, {D. A.} and J. Walsh and Bin Wang and Junhong Wang and Lei Wang and M. Wang and Ray Wang and Wang, {Sheng Hung} and Rik Wanninkhof and Shohei Watanabe and Mark Weber and M. Webster and Weller, {Robert A.} and Westberry, {Toby K.} and Weyhenmeyer, {Gesa A.} and Robert Whitewood and Widlansky, {Matthew J.} and Wiese, {David N.} and Wijffels, {Susan E.} and Wilber, {Anne C.} and Wild, {Jeanette D.} and Willett, {Kate M.} and Willis, {Josh K.} and G. Wolken and Takmeng Wong and Wood, {E. F.} and K. Wood and Woolway, {R. Iestyn} and B. Wouters and Yan Xue and Xungang Yin and Huang Yoon and A. York and Lisan Yu and Eduardo Zambrano and Zhang, {Huai Min} and Peiqun Zhang and Guanguo Zhao and Lin Zhao and Zhiwei Zhu and R. Ziel and Ziemke, {Jerry R.} and Ziese, {Markus G.} and Jessicca Griffin and Gregory Hammer and Love-Brotak, {S. Elizabeth} and Misch, {Deborah J.} and Riddle, {Deborah B.} and Mary Slagle and Mara Sprain and Veasey, {Sara W.} and McVicar, {Tim R.}",
note = "Published online: 14 september 2018",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
language = "English",
volume = "99",
pages = "Si--S310",
journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
issn = "0003-0007",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
number = "8 Special Supplement",

}

Abernethy, R, Ackerman, SA, Adler, R, Albanil Encarnación, A, Aldeco, LS, Alfaro, EJ, Aliaga-Nestares, V, Allan, RP, Allan, R, Alves, LM, Amador, JA, Anderson, J, Andreassen, LM, Argüez, A, Armitage, C, Arndt, DS, Avalos, G, Azorin-Molina, C, Báez, J, Bardin, MY, Barichivich, J, Baringer, MO, Barreira, S, Baxter, S, Beck, HE, Becker, A, Bedka, KM, Behe, C, Bell, GD, Bellouin, N, Belmont, M, Benedetti, A, Bernhard, GH, Berrisford, P, Berry, DI, Bhatt, US, Bissolli, P, Bjerke, J, Blake, ES, Blenkinsop, S, Blunden, J, Bolmgren, K, Bosilovich, MG, Boucher, O, Bouchon, M, Box, JE, Boyer, T, Braathen, GO, Bromwich, DH, Brown, R, Buehler, S, Bulygina, ON, Burgess, D, Calderón, B, Camargo, SJ, Campbell, EC, Campbell, JD, Cappelen, J, Carrea, L, Carter, BR, Castro, A, Chambers, DP, Cheng, L, Christiansen, HH, Christy, JR, Chung, ES, Clem, KR, Coelho, CAS, Coldewey-Egbers, M, Colwell, S, Cooper, OR, Copland, L, Costanza, C, Covey, C, Coy, L, Cronin, T, Crouch, J, Cruzado, L, Daniel, R, Davis, SM, Davletshin, SG, De Eyto, E, De Jeu, RAM, De La Cour, JL, De Laat, J, De Gasperi, CL, Degenstein, D, Deline, P, Demircan, M, Derksen, C, Dewitte, B, Dhurmea, R, Di Girolamo, L, Diamond, HJ, Dickerson, C, Dlugokencky, EJ, Dohan, K, Dokulil, MT, Dolman, AJ, Domingues, CM, Domingues, R, Donat, MG, Dong, S, Dorigo, WA, Drozdov, DS, Dunn, RJH, Durre, I, Dutton, GS, Eakin, CM, El Kharrim, M, Elkins, JW, Epstein, HE, Espinoza, JC, Famiglietti, JS, Farmer, J, Farrell, S, Fauchald, P, Fausto, RS, Feely, RA, Feng, Z, Fenimore, C, Fettweis, X, Fioletov, VE, Flemming, J, Fogt, RL, Folland, C, Forbes, BC, Foster, MJ, Francis, SD, Franz, BA, Frey, RA, Frith, SM, Froidevaux, L, Ganter, C, Geiger, EF, Gerland, S, Gilson, J, Gobron, N, Goldenberg, SB, Gomez, AM, Goni, G, Grooß, JU, Gruber, A, Guard, CP, Gugliemin, M, Gupta, SK, Gutiérrez, D, Haas, C, Hagos, S, Hahn, S, Haimberger, L, Hall, BD, Halpert, MS, Hamlington, BD, Hanna, E, Hansen, K, Hanssen-Bauer, L, Harris, I, Hartfield, G, Heidinger, AK, Heim, RR, Helfrich, S, Hemming, DL, Hendricks, S, Hernández, R, Hernández, SM, Heron, SF, Heuzé, C, Hidalgo, HG, Ho, SP, Hobbs, WR, Horstkotte, T, Huang, B, Hubert, D, Hueuzé, C, Hurst, DF, Ialongo, I, Ibrahim, MM, Ijampy, JA, Inness, A, Isaac, V, Isaksen, K, Ishii, M, Jacobs, SJ, Jeffries, MO, Jevrejeva, S, Jiménez, C, Jin, X, John, V, Johns, WE, Johnsen, B, Johnson, B, Johnson, GC, Johnson, KS, Jones, PD, Jumaux, G, Kabidi, K, Kaiser, JW, Karaköylü, EM, Kato, S, Kazemi, A, Keller, LM, Kennedy, J, Kerr, K, Khan, MS, Kholodov, AL, Khoshkam, M, Killick, R, Kim, H, Kim, SJ, Klotzbach, PJ, Knaff, JA, Kohler, J, Korhonen, J, Korshunova, NN, Kramarova, N, Kratz, DP, Kruger, A, Kruk, MC, Krumpen, T, Ladd, C, Lakatos, M, Lakkala, K, Lander, MA, Landschützer, P, Landsea, CW, Lankhorst, M, Lavado-Casimiro, W, Lazzara, MA, Lee, SE, Lee, TC, Leuliette, E, L'Heureux, M, Li, T, Lieser, JL, Lin, II, Mears, CA, Liu, G, Li, B, Liu, H, Locarnini, R, Loeb, NG, Long, CS, López, LA, Lorrey, AM, Loyola, D, Lumpkin, R, Luo, JJ, Luojus, K, Luthcke, S, Macias-Fauria, M, Malkova, GV, Manney, GL, Marcellin, V, Marchenko, SS, Marengo, JA, Marín, D, Marra, JJ, Marszelewski, W, Martens, B, Martin, A, Martínez, AG, Martínez-Güingla, R, Martínez-Sánchez, O, Marsh, BL, Lyman, JM, Massom, RA, May, L, Mayer, M, Mazloff, M, McBride, C, McCabe, MF, McCarthy, M, Meier, W, Meijers, AJS, Mekonnen, A, Mengistu Tsidu, G, Menzel, WP, Merchant, CJ, Meredith, MP, Merrifield, MA, Miller, B, Miralles, DG, Mitchum, GT, Mitro, S, Moat, B, Mochizuki, Y, Monselesan, D, Montzka, SA, Mora, N, Morice, C, Mosquera-Vásquez, K, Mostafa, AE, Mote, T, Mudryk, L, Mühle, J, Mullan, AB, Müller, R, Myneni, R, Nash, ER, Nerem, RS, Newman, L, Newman, PA, Nielsen-Gammon, JW, Nieto, JJ, Noetzli, J, Noll, BE, O'Neel, S, Osborn, TJ, Osborne, E, Overland, J, Oyunjargal, L, Park, T, Pasch, RJ, Pascual-Ramírez, R, Pastor Saavedra, MA, Paterson, AM, Paulik, C, Pearce, PR, Peltier, A, Pelto, MS, Peng, L, Perkins-Kirkpatrick, SE, Perovich, D, Petropavlovskikh, I, Pezza, AB, Phillips, C, Phillips, D, Phoenix, G, Pinty, B, Pinzon, J, Po-Chedley, S, Polashenski, C, Purkey, SG, Quispe, N, Rajeevan, M, Rakotoarimalala, C, Rayner, D, Raynolds, MK, Reagan, J, Reid, P, Reimer, C, Rémy, S, Revadekar, JV, Richardson, AD, Richter-Menge, J, Ricker, R, Rimmer, A, Robinson, DA, Rodell, M, Rodriguez Camino, E, Romanovsky, VE, Ronchail, J, Rosenlof, KH, Rösner, B, Roth, C, Roth, DM, Rusak, JA, Rutishäuser, T, Sallée, JB, Sánchez-Lugo, A, Santee, ML, Sasgen, L, Sawaengphokhai, P, Sayad, TA, Sayouri, A, Scambos, TA, Scanlon, T, Schenzinger, V, Schladow, SG, Schmid, C, Schmid, M, Schreck, CJ, Selkirk, HB, Send, U, Sensoy, S, Sharp, M, Shi, L, Shiklomanov, NI, Shimaraeva, SV, Siegel, DA, Silow, E, Sima, F, Simmons, AJ, Skirving, WJ, Smeed, DA, Smeets, CJPP, Smith, A, Smith, SL, Soden, B, Sofieva, V, Sparks, TH, Spence, JM, Spillane, S, Srivastava, AK, Stackhouse, PW, Stammerjohn, S, Stanitski, DM, Steinbrecht, W, Stella, JL, Stengel, M, Stephenson, K, Stephenson, TS, Strahan, S, Streletskiy, DA, Strong, AE, Sun-Mack, S, Sutton, AJ, Swart, S, Sweet, W, Takahashi, KS, Tamar, G, Taylor, MA, Tedesco, M, Thackeray, SJ, Thoman, RL, Thompson, P, Thomson, L, Thorsteinsson, T, Timbal, B, Timmermans, ML, TImofeyev, MA, Tirak, KV, Tobin, S, Togawa, H, Tømmervik, H, Tourpali, K, Trachte, K, Trewin, BC, Triñanes, JA, Trotman, AR, Tschudi, M, Tucker, CJ, Tye, MR, Van As, D, Van De Wal, RSW, Van Der Ronald, JA, Van Der Schalie, R, Van Der Schrier, G, Van Der Werf, GR, Van Meerbeeck, CJ, Velden, CS, Velicogna, I, Verburg, P, Vickers, H, Vincent, LA, Vömel, H, Vose, RS, Wagner, W, Walker, DA, Walsh, J, Wang, B, Wang, J, Wang, L, Wang, M, Wang, R, Wang, SH, Wanninkhof, R, Watanabe, S, Weber, M, Webster, M, Weller, RA, Westberry, TK, Weyhenmeyer, GA, Whitewood, R, Widlansky, MJ, Wiese, DN, Wijffels, SE, Wilber, AC, Wild, JD, Willett, KM, Willis, JK, Wolken, G, Wong, T, Wood, EF, Wood, K, Woolway, RI, Wouters, B, Xue, Y, Yin, X, Yoon, H, York, A, Yu, L, Zambrano, E, Zhang, HM, Zhang, P, Zhao, G, Zhao, L, Zhu, Z, Ziel, R, Ziemke, JR, Ziese, MG, Griffin, J, Hammer, G, Love-Brotak, SE, Misch, DJ, Riddle, DB, Slagle, M, Sprain, M, Veasey, SW & McVicar, TR 2018, 'State of the climate in 2017' Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 99, no. 8 Special Supplement, pp. Si-S310. https://doi.org/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

State of the climate in 2017. / Abernethy, R.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adler, R.; Albanil Encarnación, Adelina; Aldeco, Laura S.; Alfaro, Eric J.; Aliaga-Nestares, Vannia; Allan, Richard P.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Anderson, John; Andreassen, L. M.; Argüez, Anthony; Armitage, C.; Arndt, Derek S.; Avalos, Grinia; Azorin-Molina, César; Báez, Julián; Bardin, M. Yu; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Beck, H. E.; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behe, Carolina; Bell, Gerald D.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G. H.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bissolli, Peter; Bjerke, J.; Blake, Eric S.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Blunden, Jessica; Bolmgren, K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Bouchon, Marilú; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Buehler, S.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderón, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Ethan C.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrea, Laura; Carter, Brendan R.; Castro, Anabel; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Lijing; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, E. S.; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A.S.; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Costanza, Carol; Covey, Curt; Coy, Lawrence; Cronin, T.; Crouch, Jake; Cruzado, Luis; Daniel, Raychelle; Davis, Sean M.; Davletshin, S. G.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A.M.; De La Cour, Jacqueline L.; De Laat, Jos; De Gasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Deline, P.; Demircan, Mesut; Derksen, C.; Dewitte, Boris; Dhurmea, R.; Di Girolamo, Larry; Diamond, Howard J.; Dickerson, C.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Domingues, Ricardo; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Drozdov, D. S.; Dunn, Robert J.H.; Durre, Imke; Dutton, Geoff S.; Eakin, C. Mark; El Kharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Epstein, H. E.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farmer, J.; Farrell, S.; Fauchald, P.; Fausto, R. S.; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Forbes, B. C.; Foster, Michael J.; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Geiger, Erick F.; Gerland, S.; Gilson, John; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Gomez, Andrea M.; Goni, Gustavo; Grooß, Jens Uwe; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles P.; Gugliemin, Mario; Gupta, S. K.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Haas, C.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hansen, K.; Hanssen-Bauer, L.; Harris, Ian; Hartfield, Gail; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heim, Richard R.; Helfrich, S.; Hemming, D. L.; Hendricks, S.; Hernández, Rafael; Hernández, Sosa Marieta; Heron, Scott F.; Heuzé, C.; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Ho, Shu Peng; Hobbs, William R.; Horstkotte, T.; Huang, Boyin; Hubert, Daan; Hueuzé, Céline; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, Iolanda; Ibrahim, M. M.; Ijampy, J. A.; Inness, Antje; Isaac, Victor; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jacobs, Stephanie J.; Jeffries, Martin O.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jiménez, C.; Jin, Xiangze; John, Viju; Johns, William E.; Johnsen, Bjørn; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Jones, Philip D.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, J. W.; Karaköylü, Erdem M.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Khan, M. S.; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. J.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Krumpen, T.; Ladd, C.; Lakatos, Mónika; Lakkala, Kaisa; Lander, Mark A.; Landschützer, Peter; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Lee, S. E.; Lee, T. C.; Leuliette, Eric; L'Heureux, Michelle; Li, Tim; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I. I.; Mears, Carl A.; Liu, Gang; Li, Bailing; Liu, Hongxing; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Long, Craig S.; López, Luis A.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing Jia; Luojus, K.; Luthcke, S.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, Gloria L.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, José A.; Marín, Dora; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martin, A.; Martínez, Alejandra G.; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney; Martínez-Sánchez, Odalys; Marsh, Benjamin L.; Lyman, John M.; Massom, Robert A.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; McBride, Charlotte; McCabe, M. F.; McCarthy, Mark; Meier, W.; Meijers, Andrew J.S.; Mekonnen, Ademe; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Miller, Ben; Miralles, Diego G.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Mitro, Sukarni; Moat, Ben; Mochizuki, Y.; Monselesan, Didier; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mora, Natalie; Morice, Colin; Mosquera-Vásquez, Kobi; Mostafa, Awatif E.; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Mühle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Müller, Rolf; Myneni, R.; Nash, Eric R.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, L.; Newman, Paul A.; Nielsen-Gammon, John W.; Nieto, Juan José; Noetzli, Jeannette; Noll, Ben E.; O'Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Osborne, Emily; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Park, T.; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo; Pastor Saavedra, Maria Asuncion; Paterson, Andrew M.; Paulik, Christoph; Pearce, Petra R.; Peltier, Alexandre; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, Don; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, C.; Phillips, David; Phoenix, G.; Pinty, Bernard; Pinzon, J.; Po-Chedley, S.; Polashenski, C.; Purkey, Sarah G.; Quispe, Nelson; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Rakotoarimalala, C.; Rayner, Darren; Raynolds, M. K.; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Rémy, Samuel; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richardson, A. D.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Ricker, R.; Rimmer, Alon; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rodriguez Camino, Ernesto; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Rösner, Benjamin; Roth, Chris; Roth, David Mark; Rusak, James A.; Rutishäuser, T.; Sallée, Jean Bapiste; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sasgen, L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayad, T. A.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Scanlon, T.; Schenzinger, Verena; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schreck, Carl J.; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Sharp, M.; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Siegel, David A.; Silow, Eugene; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Skirving, William J.; Smeed, David A.; Smeets, C. J.P.P.; Smith, Adam; Smith, Sharon L.; Soden, B.; Sofieva, Viktoria; Sparks, T. H.; Spence, Jacqueline M.; Spillane, Sandra; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Stanitski, Diane M.; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, José L.; Stengel, M.; Stephenson, Kimberly; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, Dimitri A.; Strong, Alan E.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Takahashi, Kenneth S.; Tamar, Gerard; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Thackeray, S. J.; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, Philip; Thomson, L.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Timbal, Bertrand; Timmermans, M. L.; TImofeyev, Maxim A.; Tirak, Kyle V.; Tobin, Skie; Togawa, H.; Tømmervik, H.; Tourpali, Kleareti; Trachte, Katja; Trewin, Blair C.; Triñanes, Joaquin A.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Tucker, C. J.; Tye, Mari R.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S.W.; Van Der Ronald, J. A.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velden, Christopher S.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vickers, H.; Vincent, Lucie A.; Vömel, Holger; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Walker, D. A.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Ray; Wang, Sheng Hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Webster, M.; Weller, Robert A.; Westberry, Toby K.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Widlansky, Matthew J.; Wiese, David N.; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Willis, Josh K.; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Wood, K.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yin, Xungang; Yoon, Huang; York, A.; Yu, Lisan; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Huai Min; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhao, Lin; Zhu, Zhiwei; Ziel, R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Ziese, Markus G.; Griffin, Jessicca; Hammer, Gregory; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth; Misch, Deborah J.; Riddle, Deborah B.; Slagle, Mary; Sprain, Mara; Veasey, Sara W.; McVicar, Tim R.

In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 99, No. 8 Special Supplement, 08.2018, p. Si-S310.

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - State of the climate in 2017

AU - Abernethy, R.

AU - Ackerman, Steven A.

AU - Adler, R.

AU - Albanil Encarnación, Adelina

AU - Aldeco, Laura S.

AU - Alfaro, Eric J.

AU - Aliaga-Nestares, Vannia

AU - Allan, Richard P.

AU - Allan, Rob

AU - Alves, Lincoln M.

AU - Amador, Jorge A.

AU - Anderson, John

AU - Andreassen, L. M.

AU - Argüez, Anthony

AU - Armitage, C.

AU - Arndt, Derek S.

AU - Avalos, Grinia

AU - Azorin-Molina, César

AU - Báez, Julián

AU - Bardin, M. Yu

AU - Barichivich, Jonathan

AU - Baringer, Molly O.

AU - Barreira, Sandra

AU - Baxter, Stephen

AU - Beck, H. E.

AU - Becker, Andreas

AU - Bedka, Kristopher M.

AU - Behe, Carolina

AU - Bell, Gerald D.

AU - Bellouin, Nicolas

AU - Belmont, M.

AU - Benedetti, Angela

AU - Bernhard, G. H.

AU - Berrisford, Paul

AU - Berry, David I.

AU - Bhatt, U. S.

AU - Bissolli, Peter

AU - Bjerke, J.

AU - Blake, Eric S.

AU - Blenkinsop, Stephen

AU - Blunden, Jessica

AU - Bolmgren, K.

AU - Bosilovich, Michael G.

AU - Boucher, Olivier

AU - Bouchon, Marilú

AU - Box, J. E.

AU - Boyer, Tim

AU - Braathen, Geir O.

AU - Bromwich, David H.

AU - Brown, R.

AU - Buehler, S.

AU - Bulygina, Olga N.

AU - Burgess, D.

AU - Calderón, Blanca

AU - Camargo, Suzana J.

AU - Campbell, Ethan C.

AU - Campbell, Jayaka D.

AU - Cappelen, J.

AU - Carrea, Laura

AU - Carter, Brendan R.

AU - Castro, Anabel

AU - Chambers, Don P.

AU - Cheng, Lijing

AU - Christiansen, Hanne H.

AU - Christy, John R.

AU - Chung, E. S.

AU - Clem, Kyle R.

AU - Coelho, Caio A.S.

AU - Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie

AU - Colwell, Steve

AU - Cooper, Owen R.

AU - Copland, L.

AU - Costanza, Carol

AU - Covey, Curt

AU - Coy, Lawrence

AU - Cronin, T.

AU - Crouch, Jake

AU - Cruzado, Luis

AU - Daniel, Raychelle

AU - Davis, Sean M.

AU - Davletshin, S. G.

AU - De Eyto, Elvira

AU - De Jeu, Richard A.M.

AU - De La Cour, Jacqueline L.

AU - De Laat, Jos

AU - De Gasperi, Curtis L.

AU - Degenstein, Doug

AU - Deline, P.

AU - Demircan, Mesut

AU - Derksen, C.

AU - Dewitte, Boris

AU - Dhurmea, R.

AU - Di Girolamo, Larry

AU - Diamond, Howard J.

AU - Dickerson, C.

AU - Dlugokencky, Ed J.

AU - Dohan, Kathleen

AU - Dokulil, Martin T.

AU - Dolman, A. Johannes

AU - Domingues, Catia M.

AU - Domingues, Ricardo

AU - Donat, Markus G.

AU - Dong, Shenfu

AU - Dorigo, Wouter A.

AU - Drozdov, D. S.

AU - Dunn, Robert J.H.

AU - Durre, Imke

AU - Dutton, Geoff S.

AU - Eakin, C. Mark

AU - El Kharrim, M.

AU - Elkins, James W.

AU - Epstein, H. E.

AU - Espinoza, Jhan C.

AU - Famiglietti, James S.

AU - Farmer, J.

AU - Farrell, S.

AU - Fauchald, P.

AU - Fausto, R. S.

AU - Feely, Richard A.

AU - Feng, Z.

AU - Fenimore, Chris

AU - Fettweis, X.

AU - Fioletov, Vitali E.

AU - Flemming, Johannes

AU - Fogt, Ryan L.

AU - Folland, Chris

AU - Forbes, B. C.

AU - Foster, Michael J.

AU - Francis, S. D.

AU - Franz, Bryan A.

AU - Frey, Richard A.

AU - Frith, Stacey M.

AU - Froidevaux, Lucien

AU - Ganter, Catherine

AU - Geiger, Erick F.

AU - Gerland, S.

AU - Gilson, John

AU - Gobron, Nadine

AU - Goldenberg, Stanley B.

AU - Gomez, Andrea M.

AU - Goni, Gustavo

AU - Grooß, Jens Uwe

AU - Gruber, Alexander

AU - Guard, Charles P.

AU - Gugliemin, Mario

AU - Gupta, S. K.

AU - Gutiérrez, Dimitri

AU - Haas, C.

AU - Hagos, S.

AU - Hahn, Sebastian

AU - Haimberger, Leo

AU - Hall, Brad D.

AU - Halpert, Michael S.

AU - Hamlington, Benjamin D.

AU - Hanna, E.

AU - Hansen, K.

AU - Hanssen-Bauer, L.

AU - Harris, Ian

AU - Hartfield, Gail

AU - Heidinger, Andrew K.

AU - Heim, Richard R.

AU - Helfrich, S.

AU - Hemming, D. L.

AU - Hendricks, S.

AU - Hernández, Rafael

AU - Hernández, Sosa Marieta

AU - Heron, Scott F.

AU - Heuzé, C.

AU - Hidalgo, Hugo G.

AU - Ho, Shu Peng

AU - Hobbs, William R.

AU - Horstkotte, T.

AU - Huang, Boyin

AU - Hubert, Daan

AU - Hueuzé, Céline

AU - Hurst, Dale F.

AU - Ialongo, Iolanda

AU - Ibrahim, M. M.

AU - Ijampy, J. A.

AU - Inness, Antje

AU - Isaac, Victor

AU - Isaksen, K.

AU - Ishii, Masayoshi

AU - Jacobs, Stephanie J.

AU - Jeffries, Martin O.

AU - Jevrejeva, Svetlana

AU - Jiménez, C.

AU - Jin, Xiangze

AU - John, Viju

AU - Johns, William E.

AU - Johnsen, Bjørn

AU - Johnson, Bryan

AU - Johnson, Gregory C.

AU - Johnson, Kenneth S.

AU - Jones, Philip D.

AU - Jumaux, Guillaume

AU - Kabidi, Khadija

AU - Kaiser, J. W.

AU - Karaköylü, Erdem M.

AU - Kato, Seiji

AU - Kazemi, A.

AU - Keller, Linda M.

AU - Kennedy, John

AU - Kerr, Kenneth

AU - Khan, M. S.

AU - Kholodov, A. L.

AU - Khoshkam, Mahbobeh

AU - Killick, Rachel

AU - Kim, Hyungjun

AU - Kim, S. J.

AU - Klotzbach, Philip J.

AU - Knaff, John A.

AU - Kohler, J.

AU - Korhonen, Johanna

AU - Korshunova, Natalia N.

AU - Kramarova, Natalya

AU - Kratz, D. P.

AU - Kruger, Andries

AU - Kruk, Michael C.

AU - Krumpen, T.

AU - Ladd, C.

AU - Lakatos, Mónika

AU - Lakkala, Kaisa

AU - Lander, Mark A.

AU - Landschützer, Peter

AU - Landsea, Chris W.

AU - Lankhorst, Matthias

AU - Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo

AU - Lazzara, Matthew A.

AU - Lee, S. E.

AU - Lee, T. C.

AU - Leuliette, Eric

AU - L'Heureux, Michelle

AU - Li, Tim

AU - Lieser, Jan L.

AU - Lin, I. I.

AU - Mears, Carl A.

AU - Liu, Gang

AU - Li, Bailing

AU - Liu, Hongxing

AU - Locarnini, Ricardo

AU - Loeb, Norman G.

AU - Long, Craig S.

AU - López, Luis A.

AU - Lorrey, Andrew M.

AU - Loyola, Diego

AU - Lumpkin, Rick

AU - Luo, Jing Jia

AU - Luojus, K.

AU - Luthcke, S.

AU - Macias-Fauria, M.

AU - Malkova, G. V.

AU - Manney, Gloria L.

AU - Marcellin, Vernie

AU - Marchenko, S. S.

AU - Marengo, José A.

AU - Marín, Dora

AU - Marra, John J.

AU - Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz

AU - Martens, B.

AU - Martin, A.

AU - Martínez, Alejandra G.

AU - Martínez-Güingla, Rodney

AU - Martínez-Sánchez, Odalys

AU - Marsh, Benjamin L.

AU - Lyman, John M.

AU - Massom, Robert A.

AU - May, Linda

AU - Mayer, Michael

AU - Mazloff, Matthew

AU - McBride, Charlotte

AU - McCabe, M. F.

AU - McCarthy, Mark

AU - Meier, W.

AU - Meijers, Andrew J.S.

AU - Mekonnen, Ademe

AU - Mengistu Tsidu, G.

AU - Menzel, W. Paul

AU - Merchant, Christopher J.

AU - Meredith, Michael P.

AU - Merrifield, Mark A.

AU - Miller, Ben

AU - Miralles, Diego G.

AU - Mitchum, Gary T.

AU - Mitro, Sukarni

AU - Moat, Ben

AU - Mochizuki, Y.

AU - Monselesan, Didier

AU - Montzka, Stephen A.

AU - Mora, Natalie

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N1 - Published online: 14 september 2018

PY - 2018/8

Y1 - 2018/8

N2 - In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset, since records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. Notably, it was the warmest non-El Niño year in the instrumental record. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower tropospheric temperature was also either second or third highest according to all datasets analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was about 0.2°C higher than the record cold temperature of 2016 according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, and Bulgaria, reported record high annual temperatures. Mexico broke its annual record for the fourth consecutive year. On 27 January, the temperature reached 43.4°C at Puerto Madryn, Argentina-the highest temperature recorded so far south (43°S) anywhere in the world. On 28 May in Turbat, western Pakistan, the high of 53.5°C tied Pakistan's all-time highest temperature and became the world-record highest temperature for May. In the Arctic, the 2017 land surface temperature was 1.6°C above the 1981-2010 average, the second highest since the record began in 1900, behind only 2016. The five highest annual Arctic temperatures have all occurred since 2007. Exceptionally high temperatures were observed in the permafrost across the Arctic, with record values reported in much of Alaska and northwestern Canada. In August, high sea surface temperature (SST) records were broken for the Chukchi Sea, with some regions as warm as +11°C, or 3° to 4°C warmer than the longterm mean (1982-present). According to paleoclimate studies, today's abnormally warm Arctic air and SSTs have not been observed in the last 2000 years. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 7 March, sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, covering 8% less area than the 1981-2010 average. The Arctic sea ice minimum on 13 September was the eighth lowest on record and covered 25% less area than the long-term mean. Preliminary data indicate that glaciers across the world lost mass for the 38th consecutive year on record; the declines are remarkably consistent from region to region. Cumulatively since 1980, this loss is equivalent to slicing 22 meters off the top of the average glacier. Antarctic sea ice extent remained below average for all of 2017, with record lows during the first four months. Over the continent, the austral summer seasonal melt extent and melt index were the second highest since 2005, mostly due to strong positive anomalies of air temperature over most of the West Antarctic coast. In contrast, the East Antarctic Plateau saw record low mean temperatures in March. The year was also distinguished by the second smallest Antarctic ozone hole observed since 1988. Across the global oceans, the overall long-term SST warming trend remained strong. Although SST cooled slightly from 2016 to 2017, the last three years produced the three highest annual values observed; these high anomalies have been associated with widespread coral bleaching. The most recent global coral bleaching lasted three full years, June 2014 to May 2017, and was the longest, most widespread, and almost certainly most destructive such event on record. Global integrals of 0-700-m and 0-2000-m ocean heat content reached record highs in 2017, and global mean sea level during the year became the highest annual average in the 25-year satellite altimetry record, rising to 77 mm above the 1993 average. In the tropics, 2017 saw 85 named tropical storms, slightly above the 1981-2010 average of 82. The North Atlantic basin was the only basin that featured an above-normal season, its seventh most active in the 164-year record. Three hurricanes in the basin were especially notable. Harvey produced record rainfall totals in areas of Texas and Louisiana, including a storm total of 1538.7 mm near Beaumont, Texas, which far exceeds the previous known U.S. tropical cyclone record of 1320.8 mm. Irma was the strongest tropical cyclone globally in 2017 and the strongest Atlantic hurricane outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean on record with maximum winds of 295 km h-1. Maria caused catastrophic destruction across the Caribbean Islands, including devastating wind damage and flooding across Puerto Rico. Elsewhere, the western North Pacific, South Indian, and Australian basins were all particularly quiet. Precipitation over global land areas in 2017 was clearly above the long-term average. Among noteworthy regional precipitation records in 2017, Russia reported its second wettest year on record (after 2013) and Norway experienced its sixth wettest year since records began in 1900. Across India, heavy rain and flood-related incidents during the monsoon season claimed around 800 lives. In August and September, above-normal precipitation triggered the most devastating floods in more than a decade in the Venezuelan states of Bolívar and Delta Amacuro. In Nigeria, heavy rain during August and September caused the Niger and Benue Rivers to overflow, bringing floods that displaced more than 100 000 people. Global fire activity was the lowest since at least 2003; however, high activity occurred in parts of North America, South America, and Europe, with an unusually long season in Spain and Portugal, which had their second and third driest years on record, respectively. Devastating fires impacted British Columbia, destroying 1.2 million hectares of timber, bush, and grassland, due in part to the region's driest summer on record. In the United States, an extreme western wildfire season burned over 4 million hectares; the total costs of $18 billion tripled the previous U.S. annual wildfire cost record set in 1991.

AB - In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset, since records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. Notably, it was the warmest non-El Niño year in the instrumental record. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower tropospheric temperature was also either second or third highest according to all datasets analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was about 0.2°C higher than the record cold temperature of 2016 according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, and Bulgaria, reported record high annual temperatures. Mexico broke its annual record for the fourth consecutive year. On 27 January, the temperature reached 43.4°C at Puerto Madryn, Argentina-the highest temperature recorded so far south (43°S) anywhere in the world. On 28 May in Turbat, western Pakistan, the high of 53.5°C tied Pakistan's all-time highest temperature and became the world-record highest temperature for May. In the Arctic, the 2017 land surface temperature was 1.6°C above the 1981-2010 average, the second highest since the record began in 1900, behind only 2016. The five highest annual Arctic temperatures have all occurred since 2007. Exceptionally high temperatures were observed in the permafrost across the Arctic, with record values reported in much of Alaska and northwestern Canada. In August, high sea surface temperature (SST) records were broken for the Chukchi Sea, with some regions as warm as +11°C, or 3° to 4°C warmer than the longterm mean (1982-present). According to paleoclimate studies, today's abnormally warm Arctic air and SSTs have not been observed in the last 2000 years. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 7 March, sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, covering 8% less area than the 1981-2010 average. The Arctic sea ice minimum on 13 September was the eighth lowest on record and covered 25% less area than the long-term mean. Preliminary data indicate that glaciers across the world lost mass for the 38th consecutive year on record; the declines are remarkably consistent from region to region. Cumulatively since 1980, this loss is equivalent to slicing 22 meters off the top of the average glacier. Antarctic sea ice extent remained below average for all of 2017, with record lows during the first four months. Over the continent, the austral summer seasonal melt extent and melt index were the second highest since 2005, mostly due to strong positive anomalies of air temperature over most of the West Antarctic coast. In contrast, the East Antarctic Plateau saw record low mean temperatures in March. The year was also distinguished by the second smallest Antarctic ozone hole observed since 1988. Across the global oceans, the overall long-term SST warming trend remained strong. Although SST cooled slightly from 2016 to 2017, the last three years produced the three highest annual values observed; these high anomalies have been associated with widespread coral bleaching. The most recent global coral bleaching lasted three full years, June 2014 to May 2017, and was the longest, most widespread, and almost certainly most destructive such event on record. Global integrals of 0-700-m and 0-2000-m ocean heat content reached record highs in 2017, and global mean sea level during the year became the highest annual average in the 25-year satellite altimetry record, rising to 77 mm above the 1993 average. In the tropics, 2017 saw 85 named tropical storms, slightly above the 1981-2010 average of 82. The North Atlantic basin was the only basin that featured an above-normal season, its seventh most active in the 164-year record. Three hurricanes in the basin were especially notable. Harvey produced record rainfall totals in areas of Texas and Louisiana, including a storm total of 1538.7 mm near Beaumont, Texas, which far exceeds the previous known U.S. tropical cyclone record of 1320.8 mm. Irma was the strongest tropical cyclone globally in 2017 and the strongest Atlantic hurricane outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean on record with maximum winds of 295 km h-1. Maria caused catastrophic destruction across the Caribbean Islands, including devastating wind damage and flooding across Puerto Rico. Elsewhere, the western North Pacific, South Indian, and Australian basins were all particularly quiet. Precipitation over global land areas in 2017 was clearly above the long-term average. Among noteworthy regional precipitation records in 2017, Russia reported its second wettest year on record (after 2013) and Norway experienced its sixth wettest year since records began in 1900. Across India, heavy rain and flood-related incidents during the monsoon season claimed around 800 lives. In August and September, above-normal precipitation triggered the most devastating floods in more than a decade in the Venezuelan states of Bolívar and Delta Amacuro. In Nigeria, heavy rain during August and September caused the Niger and Benue Rivers to overflow, bringing floods that displaced more than 100 000 people. Global fire activity was the lowest since at least 2003; however, high activity occurred in parts of North America, South America, and Europe, with an unusually long season in Spain and Portugal, which had their second and third driest years on record, respectively. Devastating fires impacted British Columbia, destroying 1.2 million hectares of timber, bush, and grassland, due in part to the region's driest summer on record. In the United States, an extreme western wildfire season burned over 4 million hectares; the total costs of $18 billion tripled the previous U.S. annual wildfire cost record set in 1991.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053681754&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053681754&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

DO - 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

M3 - Review article

VL - 99

SP - Si-S310

JO - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

JF - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

SN - 0003-0007

IS - 8 Special Supplement

ER -

Abernethy R, Ackerman SA, Adler R, Albanil Encarnación A, Aldeco LS, Alfaro EJ et al. State of the climate in 2017. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2018 Aug;99(8 Special Supplement):Si-S310. https://doi.org/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1