Cathelicidins are effector molecules of the innate host defense system that establish an antimicrobial barrier at epithelial interfaces. The human cathelicidin LL-37, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, also exhibits immunomodulatory effects, such as inhibition of pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial LPS in human monocytic cells. In this report, we demonstrate that LL-37 almost completely prevents the pro-inflammatory cytokine release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and TLR2/1 agonists while leaving TLR2/6, TLR5, TLR7 and TLR8 responses unchanged. Modulation of the TLR response by LL-37 occurred at least partly through the MAP kinase pathway via inhibition of p38 phosphorylation. By using an LL-37 library with overlapping sequences, we identified the mid-region of LL-37, comprising amino acids 13-31, as the active domain for the modulation of TLR responses. The mechanism of immunomodulation of LL-37 and LL-37 fragments is lipopoly-saccharide binding. Correlations between the capacity of LL-37 fragments to modulate TLR responses and their physico-chemical properties revealed that cationicity and hydrophobicity are essential for the modulation of LL-37-mediated TLR responses.