Aims. To assess the prevalence rates of pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds in a large group of Dutch adolescents, aged between 12 and 18 years and to determine if the same biological, psychological, and social risk indicators are related to both TMD pain and TMJ sounds. Methods. In this cross-sectional questionnaire survey, 4,235 questionnaires were analyzed, with an about equal gender distribution. Results. The overall prevalence of pain-related TMDs was 21.6% (26.1% for girls and 17.6% for boys) and that of TMJ sounds was 15.5% (19.3% for girls and 11.7% for boys). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the following variables appeared to be the strongest predictors of TMD pain: female gender, increasing age, sleep bruxism, biting on lips and/or cheeks, stress, and feeling sad. Regarding self-reported TMJ sounds, the multiple regression model revealed that female gender, increasing age, awake bruxism, and biting on lips and/or cheeks were the strongest predictors. Conclusions. TMDs are a common finding among Dutch adolescents. Except for the psychological factors that appeared to be associated with TMD pain only, pain-related TMDs and TMJ sounds shared similar biological risk indicators.