The objective of this study was to investigate the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed involving the emergency room of three hospitals, and patients age 18 years or older, with a single fracture, were included in the study. At baseline (T0), participants completed a questionnaire covering demographic, psychological (Symptom Checklist-90), and medical variables. At plaster removal (T1) and at T2, the participants completed a questionnaire addressing symptoms of CRPS1. Psychological factors that were analysed were agoraphobia, depression, somatization, insufficiency, (interpersonal) sensitivity, insomnia, and life events. In total, 596 consecutive patients were included in the study, and 7.0% were diagnosed with CRPS1. None of the psychological factors predicted the development of CRPS1. The scores on the Symptom Checklist-90 subscales fell into the range of the general population and were, in most cases, average or below average when compared with those of pain patients or psychiatric patients. No empirical evidence supports a diagnosis of CRPS1 patients as psychologically different, and the current results indicate that there is no association between psychological factors and CRPS1. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.