There has been recent academic interest in programs as value creation processes. Scholars focus particularly on the front end of programs as opportunities for clients to create value. At the front end, client and market partners can actively co-produce value through co-creation sessions. This paper investigates what stakeholders do in co-creation sessions and how this contributes to the co-creation of value at the front end of programs. We used an action research approach combined with participant observation, document analysis, and interviews with participants to study stakeholder engagement in co-creation sessions at the front end of a Dutch infrastructure development program. The findings show that the client intended to realize a value (value-for-firm)that was competing with market partners' values. By engaging in co-creation sessions with the client, market partners and knowledge partners co-created three sets of values (value-in-use)as follows: commercial, intellectual and collaborative values. The findings contribute to the academic debate on value creation in programs with an in-depth understanding of co-creation sessions at the front end.