When a Y-chromosomal and a (partial) autosomal DNA profile are obtained from one crime sample, and both profiles match the suspect's profiles, we would like to know the combined evidential value. To calculate the likelihood ratio of observing the autosomal and Y-chromosomal DNA profiles combined, we need to know the conditional random match probability of the observed autosomal DNA profile, given the Y-chromosomal match. We examine this conditional probability in two ways: (1) with a database containing data of 2,085 men and (2) using a simulation model. We conclude that if the Y-chromosomal DNA profiles match, we can still regard the autosomal DNA profile as independent from the Y-chromosomal DNA profile if the matching person is not a descendant of the father of the donor of the (crime) sample. The evidential value can, in that case, be computed by multiplying the random match probabilities of the individual profiles. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.