This study aimed to compare the ground reaction forces (GRF) and lower limb muscles correlation and activation time delay between Forward (FW) and Backward (BW) walking. Twenty-four male students participated in this research. Electromyogram activities of gluteus medius, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, soleus and anterior tibialis muscles along with GRFs were measured. Each participant performed two FW and two BW trials bare foot. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis was performed over anterior-posterior and vertical GRFs time series. The paired t-test was used in SPM analysis. Cross-correlation analysis compared similarity in shape and time delay of EMG pattern. SPM analysis of GRFs showed that these two walking modes have asymmetrical kinetic behavior during most parts of stance phase. Based on cross-correlation analysis, the shape of EMG activation profiles differed, where a phase shift in the muscle activation pattern of approximately 60% occurred. This shift may indicate different control mechanisms, at the spinal level, underpin FW and BW walking modalities.
- Backward walking
- Cross-correlation analysis
- Gait analysis
- Statistical parametric mapping