The Content-based Media Exposure Scale (C-ME): Development and Validation

A.H. den Hamer, E.A. Konijn, X.S. Plaisier, M.G. Keijer, L. Krabbendam, B.J. Bushman

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It is somewhat ironic that although youth today are saturated in media, no standardized instrument exists to measure individual's exposure to specific media content. Therefore, we developed and validated a scale to measure both the frequency and content of adolescents' media exposure which measures media exposure regardless of media channel: the Content-based Media Exposure Scale (C-ME). The C-ME includes 17 items that assess exposure to antisocial (8 items) and neutral (9 items) media content. The factor structure was investigated in three independent samples (N = 892; N = 748; N = 524). Model fit indices like CFA's and RMSEA showed good fit, for both types of content, and predictive and discriminant validity was assessed. Exposure to antisocial media content positively correlated with sensation seeking, trait aggressiveness, violent media use, and general media use. The C-ME proves a reliable and easy to use instrument that measures media exposure in today's (new) media landscape.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-557
Number of pages9
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Early online date22 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017


  • Measurement scale
  • Validation Studies
  • Media exposure
  • Antisocial behavior


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