The Costing of Measures for Natural Hazard Mitigation

L.M. Bouwer, E. Papyrakis, J.K. Poussin, C. Pfurtscheller, A.H. Thieken

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The literature on the costing of mitigation measures for reducing impacts of natural hazards is rather fragmented. This paper provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge in Europe on the costing of mitigation measures for the reduction of natural hazard risks (droughts, floods, storms and induced coastal hazards as well as alpine hazards) and identifies knowledge gaps and related research recommendations. Furthermore, it provides a taxonomy of related mitigation options, classifying them into nine categories: (1) management plans, land-use planning, and climate adaptation; (2) hazard modification; (3) infrastructure; (4) mitigation measures (stricto sensu); (5) communication in advance of events; (6) monitoring and early warning systems; (7) emergency response and evacuation; (8) financial incentives; and (9) risk transfer (including insurance). It is found that the costing of mitigation measures in European and in other countries has almost exclusively focused on estimating direct costs. A cost assessment framework that addresses a range of costs, possibly informed by multiple stakeholders, would provide more accurate estimates and could provide better guidance to decision makers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)04014010
JournalNatural Hazards Review
Issue number4
Early online date23 Nov 2013
Publication statusPublished - 2014


Dive into the research topics of 'The Costing of Measures for Natural Hazard Mitigation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this