Background: Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities of children make daily interactions more difficult for their parents and may impact the quality of the parent-child relationship. To support these parents, an existing intervention (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting; VIPP; Juffer F, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH, 2008. Promoting positive parenting; an attachment-based intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2008) was adapted for use with parents of children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability (VIPP-V). This attachment-based intervention was hypothesized to support parents' interpretation and understanding of the behavior of their child with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability and respond to their child's signals in a sensitive way to improve parent-child interaction quality. Methods/Design: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the adapted intervention VIPP-V (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting in parents of children with Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities). Parent-child dyads will be randomized into two groups: 50 dyads will receive VIPP-V in combination with care-as-usual and 50 dyads will receive care-as-usual. Families with a child (1-5 years of age) with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability will be recruited for participation in the study. Primary outcome measures are parental sensitivity and the quality of parent-child interaction. Secondary outcome measures are parental self-efficacy, and parenting stress. To assess feasibility of implementation of the intervention the experiences of early intervention workers with regard to using VIPP-V are assessed. Moderator variables are the child's developmental age, working alliance between parent and VIPP-V intervention worker and empathy of the VIPP-V intervention worker. Data will be collected approximately one week before the intervention starts (T1), one week (T2) and three months (T3) after the intervention. Parent-child dyads in the care-as-usual-only condition will be assessed at the same time points. Both intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be performed. Discussion: Descriptive findings in pilot cases suggest benefits from VIPP-V, and compatibility with existing services for parents of children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability. The current study will provide insight into the effectiveness of this intervention for parents of children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability, and, if the intervention is effective, prepare the field for broad-scale implementation. Trial registration: Nederlands Trial Register NTR4306(registered 5 December 2013).
Overbeek, M. M., Sterkenburg, P. S., Kef, S., & Schuengel, C. (2015). The effectiveness of VIPP-V parenting training for parents of young children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16(401). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-015-0916-6