It has been suggested to use gait modifications in the retraining of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in order to reduce the external knee adduction moment (KAdM). This study focused on the effect of walking speed, foot position and trunk sway, and on the 3D knee moments. Gait analyses of fourteen healthy volunteers were performed in a gait laboratory. Subjects walked at three different speeds in their normal gait pattern, as well as with toe-in and toe-out gait and with medio-lateral trunk sway at a self-selected speed.Fast walking speed increased the KAdM (17-30%) and flexion moment (32%). A slower walking speed did not decrease the KAdM. Toe-in mainly decreased the KAdM (45%) and the transverse moment (38%) during early stance. Toe-out decreased the KAdM during late stance (56%), but increased the KAdM during early stance and midstance (21-24%), due to decreased endorotation of the hip with knee flexion. Trunk sway decreased the KAdM during early stance and midstance (31-33%). Gait modifications mainly affected the KAdM, but changes in sagittal and transverse knee moments and kinematics were also observed. This indicates that, when estimating knee load, taking only the frontal plane kinetics into consideration may lead to erroneous simplifications. No conclusive beneficial effects were found in any of the gait modifications throughout the entire stance phase. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
van den Noort, J. C., Schaffers, I., Snijders, J., & Harlaar, J. (2013). The effectiveness of voluntary modifications of gait pattern to reduce the knee adduction moment. Human Movement Science, 32(3), 412-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2012.02.009