Background: Laboratory studies have shown that self-controlled (video) feedback benefits motor learning and self-motivational beliefs. These outcomes are relevant to Physical Education (PE), but need to be verified for PE settings, in which practice and feedback need to be organized in large groups rather than individually as is common in laboratory studies. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of self-controlled video feedback on students' motor learning and self-efficacy in a PE setting when students obtain feedback relatively independent of the teacher. The secondary aim was to examine to what extent self-control and self-efficacy during practice predicted students' motor learning. Method: Participants were 56 grade 1 students of a regular secondary school who practised the shot-put during four practice sessions organized during PE lessons. One class practised with self-controlled video feedback (SC-VF group, n = 22). They practised relatively independent of the teacher: peers filmed each other and analysed the recorded video with help from video applications, a video model and cue cards. A second class practised in a similar fashion. However, they were yoked to the first group and could not choose the timing and frequency of feedback delivery (externally controlled video feedback, EC-VF group, n = 17). A third group practised in a traditional way (teacher guided TG group, n = 17) with demonstrations, verbal instructions and feedback from a PE teacher. Shot-put distance, shot-put technique and self-efficacy were measured in a pre- (week 1), post- (week 8) and retention (week 9) test. During practice (weeks 2–7, including four practice sessions), students rated their self-efficacy. After the last practice session, students rated their perceptions towards practice (i.e. perceived enjoyment and perceived learning effect). Hierarchical two-stepped linear regression analyses were performed to explore whether the type of intervention (SC-VF, EC-VF or TG group) and self-efficacy during practice predicted motor learning. Findings: Results showed that shot-put distance and technique increased significantly after practice, without differences between groups. Self-efficacy improved significantly after practice for the SC-VF (from pre- to retention test) and the TG groups (from pre- to post- and retention test), but not for the EC-VF group. Furthermore, students in the SC-VF group reported a higher perceived learning effect, compared to students in the EC-VF group. No differences in perceived enjoyment were found. Finally, self-efficacy during practice predicted improvements in shot-put technique from pre- to retention test. Conclusion: Self-controlled video feedback without guidance of a teacher on movement technique led to similar learning effects as traditional guidance of the teacher in a PE context. Self-control of feedback delivery (i.e. timing and frequency) seemed to have positive effects on self-efficacy and perceived learning effect, but did not lead to superior motor learning or perceived enjoyment. This study indicates that self-controlled video feedback as applied in this study can be implemented in PE. Future research that investigates whether and how the application of self-controlled video feedback can be further optimized, also for different types of skills, is needed. Furthermore, monitoring the application of self-regulatory skills seems important for further understanding the effects of self-controlled video feedback.
- motor learning
- Physical Education
- self-controlled video feedback