Premature infants at the limits of viability raise difficult ethical, legal, social and economic questions. Neonatologists attending an international Collegium were surveyed about delivery room behaviour, and the approach taken by selected countries practicing 'modern' medicine was explored. Conclusion There were strong preferences for comfort care at 22 weeks and full resuscitation at 24 weeks. Resuscitation was a grey area at 23 weeks. Cultural, social and legal factors also had a considerable impact on decision-making. ©2014 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.