The first day of the Cenozoic

Sean P.S. Gulick, Timothy J. Bralower, Jens Ormö, Brendon Hall, Kliti Grice, Bettina Schaefer, Shelby Lyons, Katherine H. Freeman, Joanna V. Morgan, Natalia Artemieva, Pim Kaskes, Sietze J. De Graaff, Michael T. Whalen, Gareth S. Collins, Sonia M. Tikoo, Christina Verhagen, Gail L. Christeson, Philippe Claeys, Marco J.L. Coolen, Steven Goderis & 9 others Kazuhisa Goto, Richard A.F. Grieve, Naoma McCall, Gordon R. Osinski, Auriol S.P. Rae, Ulrich Riller, Jan Smit, Vivi Vajda, Axel Wittmann

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Highly expanded Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary section from the Chicxulub peak ring, recovered by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)-International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364, provides an unprecedented window into the immediate aftermath of the impact. Site M0077 includes ∼130 m of impact melt rock and suevite deposited the first day of the Cenozoic covered by <1 m of micrite-rich carbonate deposited over subsequent weeks to years. We present an interpreted series of events based on analyses of these drill cores. Within minutes of the impact, centrally uplifted basement rock collapsed outward to forma peak ring capped in melt rock. Within tens of minutes, the peak ring was covered in ∼40 m of brecciated impact melt rock and coarsegrained suevite, including clasts possibly generated by melt-water interactions during ocean resurge. Within an hour, resurge crested the peak ring, depositing a 10-m-thick layer of suevite with increased particle roundness and sorting.Within hours, the full resurge deposit formed through settling and seiches, resulting in an 80-m-thick fining-upward, sorted suevite in the flooded crater. Within a day, the reflected rim-wave tsunami reached the crater, depositing a cross-bedded sand-to-fine gravel layer enriched in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons overlain by charcoal fragments. Generation of a deep crater open to the ocean allowed rapid flooding and sediment accumulation rates among the highest known in the geologic record. The high-resolution section provides insight into the impact environmental effects, including charcoal as evidence for impactinduced wildfires and a paucity of sulfur-rich evaporites from the target supporting rapid global cooling and darkness as extinction mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19342-19351
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume116
Issue number39
Early online date9 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Oceans and Seas
Charcoal
Tsunamis
Expeditions
Mandrillus
Darkness
Carbonates
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Sulfur
Water

Keywords

  • Chicxulub impact crater
  • Cretaceous-Paleogene
  • Peak ring
  • Suevite
  • Tsunami

Cite this

Gulick, S. P. S., Bralower, T. J., Ormö, J., Hall, B., Grice, K., Schaefer, B., ... Wittmann, A. (2019). The first day of the Cenozoic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(39), 19342-19351. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909479116
Gulick, Sean P.S. ; Bralower, Timothy J. ; Ormö, Jens ; Hall, Brendon ; Grice, Kliti ; Schaefer, Bettina ; Lyons, Shelby ; Freeman, Katherine H. ; Morgan, Joanna V. ; Artemieva, Natalia ; Kaskes, Pim ; De Graaff, Sietze J. ; Whalen, Michael T. ; Collins, Gareth S. ; Tikoo, Sonia M. ; Verhagen, Christina ; Christeson, Gail L. ; Claeys, Philippe ; Coolen, Marco J.L. ; Goderis, Steven ; Goto, Kazuhisa ; Grieve, Richard A.F. ; McCall, Naoma ; Osinski, Gordon R. ; Rae, Auriol S.P. ; Riller, Ulrich ; Smit, Jan ; Vajda, Vivi ; Wittmann, Axel. / The first day of the Cenozoic. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 ; Vol. 116, No. 39. pp. 19342-19351.
@article{663a8272bb614a609987c4f97a816f4d,
title = "The first day of the Cenozoic",
abstract = "Highly expanded Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary section from the Chicxulub peak ring, recovered by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)-International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364, provides an unprecedented window into the immediate aftermath of the impact. Site M0077 includes ∼130 m of impact melt rock and suevite deposited the first day of the Cenozoic covered by <1 m of micrite-rich carbonate deposited over subsequent weeks to years. We present an interpreted series of events based on analyses of these drill cores. Within minutes of the impact, centrally uplifted basement rock collapsed outward to forma peak ring capped in melt rock. Within tens of minutes, the peak ring was covered in ∼40 m of brecciated impact melt rock and coarsegrained suevite, including clasts possibly generated by melt-water interactions during ocean resurge. Within an hour, resurge crested the peak ring, depositing a 10-m-thick layer of suevite with increased particle roundness and sorting.Within hours, the full resurge deposit formed through settling and seiches, resulting in an 80-m-thick fining-upward, sorted suevite in the flooded crater. Within a day, the reflected rim-wave tsunami reached the crater, depositing a cross-bedded sand-to-fine gravel layer enriched in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons overlain by charcoal fragments. Generation of a deep crater open to the ocean allowed rapid flooding and sediment accumulation rates among the highest known in the geologic record. The high-resolution section provides insight into the impact environmental effects, including charcoal as evidence for impactinduced wildfires and a paucity of sulfur-rich evaporites from the target supporting rapid global cooling and darkness as extinction mechanisms.",
keywords = "Chicxulub impact crater, Cretaceous-Paleogene, Peak ring, Suevite, Tsunami",
author = "Gulick, {Sean P.S.} and Bralower, {Timothy J.} and Jens Orm{\"o} and Brendon Hall and Kliti Grice and Bettina Schaefer and Shelby Lyons and Freeman, {Katherine H.} and Morgan, {Joanna V.} and Natalia Artemieva and Pim Kaskes and {De Graaff}, {Sietze J.} and Whalen, {Michael T.} and Collins, {Gareth S.} and Tikoo, {Sonia M.} and Christina Verhagen and Christeson, {Gail L.} and Philippe Claeys and Coolen, {Marco J.L.} and Steven Goderis and Kazuhisa Goto and Grieve, {Richard A.F.} and Naoma McCall and Osinski, {Gordon R.} and Rae, {Auriol S.P.} and Ulrich Riller and Jan Smit and Vivi Vajda and Axel Wittmann",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1909479116",
language = "English",
volume = "116",
pages = "19342--19351",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
publisher = "National Acad Sciences",
number = "39",

}

Gulick, SPS, Bralower, TJ, Ormö, J, Hall, B, Grice, K, Schaefer, B, Lyons, S, Freeman, KH, Morgan, JV, Artemieva, N, Kaskes, P, De Graaff, SJ, Whalen, MT, Collins, GS, Tikoo, SM, Verhagen, C, Christeson, GL, Claeys, P, Coolen, MJL, Goderis, S, Goto, K, Grieve, RAF, McCall, N, Osinski, GR, Rae, ASP, Riller, U, Smit, J, Vajda, V & Wittmann, A 2019, 'The first day of the Cenozoic' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 116, no. 39, pp. 19342-19351. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909479116

The first day of the Cenozoic. / Gulick, Sean P.S.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Ormö, Jens; Hall, Brendon; Grice, Kliti; Schaefer, Bettina; Lyons, Shelby; Freeman, Katherine H.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Artemieva, Natalia; Kaskes, Pim; De Graaff, Sietze J.; Whalen, Michael T.; Collins, Gareth S.; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Verhagen, Christina; Christeson, Gail L.; Claeys, Philippe; Coolen, Marco J.L.; Goderis, Steven; Goto, Kazuhisa; Grieve, Richard A.F.; McCall, Naoma; Osinski, Gordon R.; Rae, Auriol S.P.; Riller, Ulrich; Smit, Jan; Vajda, Vivi; Wittmann, Axel.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 116, No. 39, 24.09.2019, p. 19342-19351.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The first day of the Cenozoic

AU - Gulick, Sean P.S.

AU - Bralower, Timothy J.

AU - Ormö, Jens

AU - Hall, Brendon

AU - Grice, Kliti

AU - Schaefer, Bettina

AU - Lyons, Shelby

AU - Freeman, Katherine H.

AU - Morgan, Joanna V.

AU - Artemieva, Natalia

AU - Kaskes, Pim

AU - De Graaff, Sietze J.

AU - Whalen, Michael T.

AU - Collins, Gareth S.

AU - Tikoo, Sonia M.

AU - Verhagen, Christina

AU - Christeson, Gail L.

AU - Claeys, Philippe

AU - Coolen, Marco J.L.

AU - Goderis, Steven

AU - Goto, Kazuhisa

AU - Grieve, Richard A.F.

AU - McCall, Naoma

AU - Osinski, Gordon R.

AU - Rae, Auriol S.P.

AU - Riller, Ulrich

AU - Smit, Jan

AU - Vajda, Vivi

AU - Wittmann, Axel

PY - 2019/9/24

Y1 - 2019/9/24

N2 - Highly expanded Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary section from the Chicxulub peak ring, recovered by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)-International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364, provides an unprecedented window into the immediate aftermath of the impact. Site M0077 includes ∼130 m of impact melt rock and suevite deposited the first day of the Cenozoic covered by <1 m of micrite-rich carbonate deposited over subsequent weeks to years. We present an interpreted series of events based on analyses of these drill cores. Within minutes of the impact, centrally uplifted basement rock collapsed outward to forma peak ring capped in melt rock. Within tens of minutes, the peak ring was covered in ∼40 m of brecciated impact melt rock and coarsegrained suevite, including clasts possibly generated by melt-water interactions during ocean resurge. Within an hour, resurge crested the peak ring, depositing a 10-m-thick layer of suevite with increased particle roundness and sorting.Within hours, the full resurge deposit formed through settling and seiches, resulting in an 80-m-thick fining-upward, sorted suevite in the flooded crater. Within a day, the reflected rim-wave tsunami reached the crater, depositing a cross-bedded sand-to-fine gravel layer enriched in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons overlain by charcoal fragments. Generation of a deep crater open to the ocean allowed rapid flooding and sediment accumulation rates among the highest known in the geologic record. The high-resolution section provides insight into the impact environmental effects, including charcoal as evidence for impactinduced wildfires and a paucity of sulfur-rich evaporites from the target supporting rapid global cooling and darkness as extinction mechanisms.

AB - Highly expanded Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary section from the Chicxulub peak ring, recovered by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)-International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364, provides an unprecedented window into the immediate aftermath of the impact. Site M0077 includes ∼130 m of impact melt rock and suevite deposited the first day of the Cenozoic covered by <1 m of micrite-rich carbonate deposited over subsequent weeks to years. We present an interpreted series of events based on analyses of these drill cores. Within minutes of the impact, centrally uplifted basement rock collapsed outward to forma peak ring capped in melt rock. Within tens of minutes, the peak ring was covered in ∼40 m of brecciated impact melt rock and coarsegrained suevite, including clasts possibly generated by melt-water interactions during ocean resurge. Within an hour, resurge crested the peak ring, depositing a 10-m-thick layer of suevite with increased particle roundness and sorting.Within hours, the full resurge deposit formed through settling and seiches, resulting in an 80-m-thick fining-upward, sorted suevite in the flooded crater. Within a day, the reflected rim-wave tsunami reached the crater, depositing a cross-bedded sand-to-fine gravel layer enriched in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons overlain by charcoal fragments. Generation of a deep crater open to the ocean allowed rapid flooding and sediment accumulation rates among the highest known in the geologic record. The high-resolution section provides insight into the impact environmental effects, including charcoal as evidence for impactinduced wildfires and a paucity of sulfur-rich evaporites from the target supporting rapid global cooling and darkness as extinction mechanisms.

KW - Chicxulub impact crater

KW - Cretaceous-Paleogene

KW - Peak ring

KW - Suevite

KW - Tsunami

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072638126&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072638126&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1909479116

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1909479116

M3 - Article

VL - 116

SP - 19342

EP - 19351

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 39

ER -

Gulick SPS, Bralower TJ, Ormö J, Hall B, Grice K, Schaefer B et al. The first day of the Cenozoic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 Sep 24;116(39):19342-19351. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909479116