The Forel-Ule scale revisited spectrally: preparation protocol, transmission measurements and chromaticity

S. Novoa, M.R. Wernand, H.J. van der Woerd

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    The Forel-Ule colour comparator scale has been applied globally and intensively by oceanographers and limnologists since the 19th century, providing one of the oldest oceanographic data sets. Present and future Forel-Ule classifications of global oceanic, coastal and continental waters can facilitate the interpretation of these long-term ocean colour data series and provide a connection between the present and the past that will be valuable for climate-related studies. Within the EC-funded project CITLOPS (Citizens' Observatory for Coast and Ocean Optical Monitoring), with its main goal to empower endusers, willing to employ community-based environmental monitoring, our aim is to digitalize the colours of the Forel-Ule scale to establish the colour of natural waters through smartphone imaging. The objective of this study was to reproduce the Forel-Ule scale following the original recipes, measure the transmission of the solutions and calculate the chromaticity coordinates of the scale as Wernand and Van der Woerd did in 2010, for the future development of a smartphone application. Some difficulties were encountered when producing the scale, so a protocol for its consistent reproduction was developed and is described in this study. Recalculated chromaticity coordinates are presented and compared to measurements conducted by former scientists. An error analysis of the spectral and colourimetric information shows negligible experimental errors.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-8
    JournalJournal of the European Optical Society. Rapid Publications
    Issue number13057
    Early online date23 Aug 2013
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


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