The GRoLTS-Checklist: Guidelines for Reporting on Latent Trajectory Studies

Rens van de Schoot, Marit Sijbrandij, Sonja D. Winter, Sarah Depaoli, Jeroen K. Vermunt

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Estimating models within the mixture model framework, like latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) or latent class growth analysis (LCGA), involves making various decisions throughout the estimation process. This has led to a wide variety in how results of latent trajectory analysis are reported. To overcome this issue, using a 4-round Delphi study, we developed Guidelines for Reporting on Latent Trajectory Studies (GRoLTS). The purpose of GRoLTS is to present criteria that should be included when reporting the results of latent trajectory analysis across research fields. We have gone through a systematic process to identify key components that, according to a panel of experts, are necessary when reporting results for trajectory studies. We applied GRoLTS to 38 papers where LGMM or LCGA was used to study trajectories of posttraumatic stress after a traumatic event.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-467
Number of pages17
JournalStructural Equation Modeling
Issue number3
Early online date11 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2017


Rens van de Schoot and Jeroen K. Vermunt were supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research: NWO-VIDI-452-14-006 and NWO-VICI-453-10-002, respectively.

FundersFunder number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk OnderzoekNWO-VICI-453-10-002, NWO-VIDI-452-14-006


    • latent classes
    • LCGA
    • LGMM
    • mixture modeling
    • SEM


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