The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders

L. Boschloo, K.G. Reeuwijk, R.A. Schoevers, B.W.J.H. Penninx

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although depressed and anxious patients often show an unhealthy lifestyle, much is still unclear about its impact on the natural course of disorders. This study will examine whether physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption predicted the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

METHODS: In a large sample of depressed and/or anxious patients (n=1275), we examined whether baseline physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption independently predicted the course of disorders at 2-year follow-up. The persistence of DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorders (primary outcome) and the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes) were considered. Confounding effects of baseline severity of psychopathology, sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors were taken into account.

RESULTS: The persistence of disorders was significantly increased in patients with low physical activity (61.2%), but not moderate physical activity (54.4%), compared to patients with high physical activity (49.2%). This association remained significant after adjustment for baseline severity of psychopathology, other lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors. Similar results were found for the course of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was related to the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

LIMITATIONS: Assessments of lifestyle factors were based on self-report and may be subject to recall and social desirability bias.

CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity, but not heavy smoking or alcohol consumption, was a strong and independent risk factor of an unfavorable course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders and may be an important therapeutic target in treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-79
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume159
Early online date11 Feb 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2014

Fingerprint

Depressive Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Life Style
Alcohol Drinking
Exercise
Smoking
Psychopathology
Anxiety
Depression
Social Desirability
Health
Therapeutics
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Self Report

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology
  • Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder/diagnosis
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands/epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sedentary Lifestyle
  • Self Report
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Smoking/epidemiology

Cite this

Boschloo, L. ; Reeuwijk, K.G. ; Schoevers, R.A. ; Penninx, B.W.J.H. / The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014 ; Vol. 159. pp. 73-79.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Although depressed and anxious patients often show an unhealthy lifestyle, much is still unclear about its impact on the natural course of disorders. This study will examine whether physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption predicted the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.METHODS: In a large sample of depressed and/or anxious patients (n=1275), we examined whether baseline physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption independently predicted the course of disorders at 2-year follow-up. The persistence of DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorders (primary outcome) and the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes) were considered. Confounding effects of baseline severity of psychopathology, sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors were taken into account.RESULTS: The persistence of disorders was significantly increased in patients with low physical activity (61.2{\%}), but not moderate physical activity (54.4{\%}), compared to patients with high physical activity (49.2{\%}). This association remained significant after adjustment for baseline severity of psychopathology, other lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors. Similar results were found for the course of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was related to the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.LIMITATIONS: Assessments of lifestyle factors were based on self-report and may be subject to recall and social desirability bias.CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity, but not heavy smoking or alcohol consumption, was a strong and independent risk factor of an unfavorable course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders and may be an important therapeutic target in treatment.",
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The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. / Boschloo, L.; Reeuwijk, K.G.; Schoevers, R.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 159, 20.04.2014, p. 73-79.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders

AU - Boschloo, L.

AU - Reeuwijk, K.G.

AU - Schoevers, R.A.

AU - Penninx, B.W.J.H.

N1 - Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2014/4/20

Y1 - 2014/4/20

N2 - BACKGROUND: Although depressed and anxious patients often show an unhealthy lifestyle, much is still unclear about its impact on the natural course of disorders. This study will examine whether physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption predicted the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.METHODS: In a large sample of depressed and/or anxious patients (n=1275), we examined whether baseline physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption independently predicted the course of disorders at 2-year follow-up. The persistence of DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorders (primary outcome) and the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes) were considered. Confounding effects of baseline severity of psychopathology, sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors were taken into account.RESULTS: The persistence of disorders was significantly increased in patients with low physical activity (61.2%), but not moderate physical activity (54.4%), compared to patients with high physical activity (49.2%). This association remained significant after adjustment for baseline severity of psychopathology, other lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors. Similar results were found for the course of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was related to the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.LIMITATIONS: Assessments of lifestyle factors were based on self-report and may be subject to recall and social desirability bias.CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity, but not heavy smoking or alcohol consumption, was a strong and independent risk factor of an unfavorable course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders and may be an important therapeutic target in treatment.

AB - BACKGROUND: Although depressed and anxious patients often show an unhealthy lifestyle, much is still unclear about its impact on the natural course of disorders. This study will examine whether physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption predicted the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.METHODS: In a large sample of depressed and/or anxious patients (n=1275), we examined whether baseline physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption independently predicted the course of disorders at 2-year follow-up. The persistence of DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorders (primary outcome) and the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes) were considered. Confounding effects of baseline severity of psychopathology, sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors were taken into account.RESULTS: The persistence of disorders was significantly increased in patients with low physical activity (61.2%), but not moderate physical activity (54.4%), compared to patients with high physical activity (49.2%). This association remained significant after adjustment for baseline severity of psychopathology, other lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), sociodemographics, somatic health indicators and treatment factors. Similar results were found for the course of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was related to the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.LIMITATIONS: Assessments of lifestyle factors were based on self-report and may be subject to recall and social desirability bias.CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity, but not heavy smoking or alcohol consumption, was a strong and independent risk factor of an unfavorable course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders and may be an important therapeutic target in treatment.

KW - Adult

KW - Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology

KW - Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis

KW - Depressive Disorder/diagnosis

KW - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

KW - Female

KW - Follow-Up Studies

KW - Humans

KW - Life Style

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Netherlands/epidemiology

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Sedentary Lifestyle

KW - Self Report

KW - Severity of Illness Index

KW - Smoking/epidemiology

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2014.01.019

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2014.01.019

M3 - Article

VL - 159

SP - 73

EP - 79

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

ER -