This article attempts to present a systematic overview of the impact of transport infrastructure on spatial patterns of economic activities.The central element is that an improvement in the transport infrastructure leads to lower interaction costs. This has three major effects. First, anincrease in the access of actors and the accessibility of locations. Second an increase in the productivity of firms and households. Third, a change inthe volume and location of activities of firms and households. There also exist feed backs and intermediate factors which have an important impact onthe strength and time period in which transport infrastructure affects economicdevelopment. The overview of approaches show that major steps forward can be made bylinking modelling and non-modelling approaches.