The muscle fiber type-fiber size paradox: hypertrophy or oxidative metabolism?

T. van Wessel, A. de Haan, W.J. van der Laarse, R.T. Jaspers

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    An inverse relationship exists between striated muscle fiber size and its oxidative capacity. This relationship implies that muscle fibers, which are triggered to simultaneously increase their mass/strength (hypertrophy) and fatigue resistance (oxidative capacity), increase these properties (strength or fatigue resistance) to a lesser extent compared to fibers increasing either of these alone. Muscle fiber size and oxidative capacity are determined by the balance between myofibrillar protein synthesis, mitochondrial biosynthesis and degradation. New experimental data and an inventory of critical stimuli and state of activation of the signaling pathways involved in regulating contractile and metabolic protein turnover reveal: (1) higher capacity for protein synthesis in high compared to low oxidative fibers; (2) competition between signaling pathways for synthesis of myofibrillar proteins and proteins associated with oxidative metabolism; i.e., increased mitochondrial biogenesis via AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates the rate of protein synthesis; (3) relatively higher expression levels of E3-ligases and proteasome-mediated protein degradation in high oxidative fibers. These observations could explain the fiber type-fiber size paradox that despite the high capacity for protein synthesis in high oxidative fibers, these fibers remain relatively small. However, it remains challenging to understand the mechanisms by which contractile activity, mechanical loading, cellular energy status and cellular oxygen tension affect regulation of fiber size. Therefore, one needs to know the relative contribution of the signaling pathways to protein turnover in high and low oxidative fibers. The outcome and ideas presented are relevant to optimizing treatment and training in the fields of sports, cardiology, oncology, pulmonology and rehabilitation medicine. © 2010 The Author(s).
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages665-694
    JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
    Volume110
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    Hypertrophy
    Muscles
    Proteins
    Fatigue
    Contractile Proteins
    Pulmonary Medicine
    AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
    Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
    Striated Muscle
    Mitochondrial Proteins
    Organelle Biogenesis
    Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
    Cardiology
    Proteolysis
    Sports
    Rehabilitation
    Medicine
    Oxygen
    Equipment and Supplies

    Cite this

    van Wessel, T. ; de Haan, A. ; van der Laarse, W.J. ; Jaspers, R.T. / The muscle fiber type-fiber size paradox: hypertrophy or oxidative metabolism?. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010 ; Vol. 110, No. 4. pp. 665-694.
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    abstract = "An inverse relationship exists between striated muscle fiber size and its oxidative capacity. This relationship implies that muscle fibers, which are triggered to simultaneously increase their mass/strength (hypertrophy) and fatigue resistance (oxidative capacity), increase these properties (strength or fatigue resistance) to a lesser extent compared to fibers increasing either of these alone. Muscle fiber size and oxidative capacity are determined by the balance between myofibrillar protein synthesis, mitochondrial biosynthesis and degradation. New experimental data and an inventory of critical stimuli and state of activation of the signaling pathways involved in regulating contractile and metabolic protein turnover reveal: (1) higher capacity for protein synthesis in high compared to low oxidative fibers; (2) competition between signaling pathways for synthesis of myofibrillar proteins and proteins associated with oxidative metabolism; i.e., increased mitochondrial biogenesis via AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates the rate of protein synthesis; (3) relatively higher expression levels of E3-ligases and proteasome-mediated protein degradation in high oxidative fibers. These observations could explain the fiber type-fiber size paradox that despite the high capacity for protein synthesis in high oxidative fibers, these fibers remain relatively small. However, it remains challenging to understand the mechanisms by which contractile activity, mechanical loading, cellular energy status and cellular oxygen tension affect regulation of fiber size. Therefore, one needs to know the relative contribution of the signaling pathways to protein turnover in high and low oxidative fibers. The outcome and ideas presented are relevant to optimizing treatment and training in the fields of sports, cardiology, oncology, pulmonology and rehabilitation medicine. {\circledC} 2010 The Author(s).",
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    The muscle fiber type-fiber size paradox: hypertrophy or oxidative metabolism? / van Wessel, T.; de Haan, A.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Jaspers, R.T.

    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 110, No. 4, 2010, p. 665-694.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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