In this paper, we review neuropsychological test results of early and continuously treated Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. To increase insight into the neuropsychological profile of this population, we have attempted to place the results within an attentional network model [Images of the mind, 1994], which proposes interacting but dissociable attentional networks for orienting, vigilance, and executive control of attention. Executive control of attention is discussed against the background of the process-specific theory of working memory (WM) [Handbook of neuropsychology, 1994], which postulates a distinction between the 'maintenance'-function of WM and the 'manipulation and monitoring'-function. Neuropsychological results are presented for 67 early and continuously treated PKU patients and 73 controls aged 7-14 years. Four neuropsychological tasks were employed to measure orienting, mnemonic processing, interference suppression, and top-down control in visual search. No differences were found in orienting and the maintenance-function of WM. In addition to previously reported impairments in sustained attention/vigilance and inhibition of prepotent responding, PKU patients exhibited deficits when top-down control was required in a visual search task, but showed no impairment when interference suppression was required. It is discussed how the specific neuropsychological impairments in PKU may be a consequence of mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunctioning due to deficiencies in catecholamine modulation. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.