Background: As a consequence of climate warming, many organisms are shifting their range towards higher latitudes and altitudes. As not all do so at the same speed, this may disrupt biotic interaction. Release from natural enemies through range expansion can result in invasiveness, whereas loss of mutualists can reduce plant vigour and fitness. One of the most important groups of plant symbiotic mutualists is the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).
van Grunsven, R. H. A., Yuwati, T-W., Kowalchuk, G. A., van der Putten, W. H., & Veenendaal, E. M. (2014). The northward shifting neophyte Tragopogon dubius is just as effective in forming mycorrhizal associations as the native T. pratensis. Plant Ecology and Diversity, 7, 533-539. https://doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2013.824517