The PFOA substitute GenX detected in the environment near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated compounds such as GenX. Limited information is available on the occurrence of this PFOA substitute. In this pilot study, we investigated the presence of GenX in/on grass and leaf samples collected near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands and in drinking water produced from surface and surface-water influenced groundwater intake points within 25 km from the plant. GenX was detected in/on all grass and leaf samples collected within 3 km north-east from the plant, with levels ranging from 1 to 27 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 4.3-86 ng/g ww, respectively. The PFOA levels in/on grass and leaves were lower, ranging from 0.7 to 11 ng/g ww and 0.9-28 ng/g ww, respectively. A declining concentration gradient of GenX and PFOA with increasing distance from the plant was observed, which suggests that the plant is a point source of GenX and was a point source for PFOA in the past. In all drinking water samples, GenX and PFOA were detected with levels ranging from 1.4 to 8.0 ng/L and 1.9-7.1 ng/L, respectively. The detection of GenX, which is only used since 2012, in/on grass and leaves and in drinking water indicates that GenX is now distributed through the environment. The presence of GenX and PFOA in/on grass and leaves within 3 km north-east of the plant also suggests that these chemicals could also be present on the locally grown food in gardens around the factory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-500
Number of pages8
JournalChemosphere
Volume220
Early online date20 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

Keywords

  • Drinking water
  • GenX
  • Grass
  • HFPO-DA
  • Leaves
  • Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The PFOA substitute GenX detected in the environment near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this