The pregnancy anxiety questionnaire revised-2: A contribution to its validation

Antonio Dellagiulia*, Francesca Lionetti, Massimiliano Pastore, Karlsson Linnea, Karlsson Hasse, Anja C. Huizink

*Corresponding author for this work

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Pregnancy-related anxiety is an important risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and postnatal parental well-being, to a greater extent than general anxiety, calling for a reliable and validated measure for its assessment. The current paper aimed to validate the Pregnancy Anxiety Questionnaire - Revised-2 (PRAQ-R2; Huizink et al., 2016) in a sample of Italian women, by testing its psychometric properties, and checking for Italian-Finnish measurement invariance. Additionally, the association with general anxiety and depression was examined. Participants included 348 Italian pregnant women and 348 Finnish pregnant women. Results showed that the Italian version of PRAQ-R2 presents satisfying psychometric proprieties. Data supported a three-factor solution including fear of giving birth, worries about bearing a handicapped child, and concern about own appearance. Invariance across countries was confirmed. The primiparous condition was associated with a higher level of pregnancy anxiety only for fear of giving birth. A moderate correlation was found between pregnancy anxiety and general anxiety and depression, providing evidence for concurrent validity, as well as for the existence of a specific pregnancy anxiety dimension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)787-795
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number5
Early online date25 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy anxiety
  • Pregnancy Anxiety Questionnaire - Revised-2 (PRAQ-R2)
  • Pregnancy depression
  • Prenatal anxiety measure


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