The sequential patterning of tactics: Activism in the global sports apparel industry, 1988–2002

F. den Hond, F.G.A. de Bakker, P. de Haan

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    Purpose – Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the build-up of pressure on firms within this industry (brands, retailers) to change their policies and activities on labour issues in their supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to explore how activist groups instigate change within an industry. Design/methodology/approach – By re-examining a series of previously published accounts, eight conflict situations in the global sports and apparel industry, involving Nike, Reebok and Adidas, were analysed. Findings – The paper demonstrates how an industry-level approach is helpful in understanding how the sequential patterning of tactical choices evokes change in an industry. Studying activist groups’ tactics from this approach provides a richer understanding. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the growing literature on activists’ influence strategies in conflicts with firms and speaks to current attempts at bringing together social movement and organization theories.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)648-665
    JournalInternational journal of sociology and social policy
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 2010


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