The spatial presence experience scale (SPES): A short self-report measure for diverse media settings

T. Hartmann, W. Wirth, H. Schramm, C. Klimmt, P.A. Vorderer, A. Gysbers, S. Böcking, N. Ravaja, J. Laari, T. Saari, F.R. Gouveia, A. Sacau

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Abstract

The study of spatial presence is currently receiving increased attention in both media psychology and communication research. The present paper introduces the Spatial Presence Experience Scale (SPES), a short eight-item self-report measure. The SPES is derived from a process model of spatial presence (Wirth et al., 2007, Media Psychology, 9, 493-525), and assesses spatial presence as a two-dimensional construct that comprises a user's self-location and perceived possible actions in a media environment. The SPES is shorter than many other available spatial presence scales, and can be conveniently applied to diverse media settings. Two studies are reported (N
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
JournalJournal of Media Psychology
Volume28
Early online date17 Nov 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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