The present study aimed to assess the bioavailability and toxicity of lead nitrate and lead chloride to Enchytraeus crypticus in a natural standard soil. Worms were exposed to Pb-spiked soil for 21 d, and survival and reproduction were related to total, 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable, and porewater Pb concentrations in the soil and internal concentrations in the surviving animals. The Pb availability for Pb(NO3)2 and PbCl2 was similar, as confirmed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Pb concentrations in surviving worms increased with increasing Pb concentrations in the soil and did not differ for the 2 Pb salts. Lead was toxic to E. crypticus at median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of 543 and 779 mg Pb/kg dry soil and median effect concentrations (EC50s) of 189 and 134 mg Pb/kg dry soil, for Pb(NO3)2 and PbCl2, respectively. Mortality of E. crypticus was related to internal Pb concentrations in the worms rather than to total or available Pb concentrations in the soil, whereas reproduction toxicity was better explained from Pb concentrations in 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts or porewater of the test soil than from total Pb concentrations in the soil or Pb concentrations in the worms. Overall, the bioavailability and toxicity of Pb(NO3)2 and PbCl2 to E. crypticus in LUFA 2.2 soil did not differ. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2083–2091.
- Soil invertebrates