The Video Engagement Scale (VES): measurement properties of the full and shortened VES across studies

Vicky Lehmann, Marij A. Hillen, Mathilde G.E. Verdam, Arwen H. Pieterse, Nanon H.M. Labrie, Agnetha D. Fruijtier, Tom H. Oreel, Ellen M.A. Smets*, Leonie N.C. Visser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The Video Engagement Scale (VES) is a quality indicator to assess engagement in experimental video-vignette studies, but its measurement properties warrant improvement. Data from previous studies were combined (N = 2676) and split into three subsamples for a stepped analytical approach. We tested construct validity, criterion validity, reliability, and measurement invariance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) reiterated poor fit of the previously suggested subscales. An alternative 2-factor structure is presented, which was cross-validated and further shortened (VES-sf). Reliability of both subscales (Immersion, Emotional Impact) was very high (α > .86). Multi-group CFAs demonstrated partial and complete measurement invariance among male/female and differently educated participants respectively. Invariance between healthy versus ill participants was not established, but CFAs supported the VES-sf structure in both groups separately. To conclude, we provide the VES-sf with sound measurement properties and demonstrated the appropriateness of comparing certain subgroups. Overall, we recommend the VES-sf to assess engagement/ecological validity in video-vignette research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-318
JournalInternational Journal of Social Research Methodology
Issue number3
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • experimental study design
  • Measurement properties
  • validity
  • video engagement
  • video-vignette


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