Theory of the n=2 levels in muonic deuterium

Julian J. Krauth*, Marc Diepold, Beatrice Franke, Aldo Antognini, Franz Kottmann, Randolf Pohl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


The present knowledge of Lamb shift, fine- and hyperfine structure of the 2S and 2P states in muonic deuterium is reviewed in anticipation of the results of a first measurement of several 2S -2P transition frequencies in muonic deuterium (μd). A term-by-term comparison of all available sources reveals reliable values and uncertainties of the QED and nuclear structure-dependent contributions to the Lamb shift, which are essential for a determination of the deuteron rms charge radius from μd. Apparent discrepancies between different sources are resolved, in particular for the difficult two-photon exchange contributions. Problematic single-sourced terms are identified which require independent recalculation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)168-196
Number of pages29
JournalAnnals of Physics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016


  • Fine structure
  • Hyperfine structure
  • Lamb shift
  • Muonic deuterium
  • Proton radius puzzle
  • QED


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