The use of high voltages across a electrophoresis capillary will increase the temperature of the buffer due to Joule heating. As a result temperature control in CE is rather important since variations in the buffer temperature will result in changes in the pi-I of the buffer, peak shape, migration time, reproducibility, efficiency, 3-D structure of macromolecular analytes, etc. Six different thermostating systems have been evaluated: (i) natural convection, (ii) fan, (iii) home-made and (iv and v) two commercially available high-speed air and a (vi) liquid thermostated device. In all cases the temperature of the buffer in the capillary is calculated according to the temperature-conductivity relationship. For this purpose two parameters are introduced describing temperature control: the temperature onset (δT) and the temperature rise factor (a). From these results, it can be concluded that high speed air thermostating can be as efficient as liquid thermostating.